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References by: Brandon T. Bestelmeyer, John A. Wiens For paper: The Effects of Land Use on the Structure of Ground-Foraging Ant Communities in the Argentine Chaco

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List of references used by Brandon T. Bestelmeyer and John A. Wiens for the article "The Effects of Land Use on the Structure of Ground-Foraging Ant Communities in the Argentine Chaco".

latest article added on January 2015

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Stress and Disturbance: Vegetation Dynamics in the Dry Chaco Region of ArgentinaAdamoli, Jorge1990

Stress and Disturbance: Vegetation Dynamics in the Dry Chaco Region of Argentina

Keywords

overgrazing, riverine, savanna vegetation dynamics, disturbance, gallery forests, stability, Chaco, Argentina.

Abstract

This paper analyses two processes acting on vegetation dynamics in the dry Chaco region of Argentina. The major one is the response of herbaceous/woody species to overgrazing. Extensive cattle breeding reached a peak shortly before the 1940s, when animal production in the region became saturated. Thus over-exploitation reached a crisis during this decade and there followed a sharp decrease in the number of cattle and the efficiency of the production system. The number of puestos (stations), on the contrary, remained fairly constant. Thus overgrazing has led to degradation of the natural systems. Today the most intensely degraded areas form a 25-50 ha fringe around each puesto headquarters and represent less than 1 % of the total area studied. Here, marked changes in soil physiochemical properties can be seen together with the elimination of trees and shrubs. Away from this fringe, degradation basically involves the herbaceous cover, changing the original landscape of forests and savannas into one of forests and shrub patches. There are not only structural alterations but also changes in the system's dynamics due to modifications in the relationships between its components. The sequence of changes seems to exhibit resilient behaviour showing hysteresis. The second process is the dynamics of gallery forest resulting from intensive river-bed migrations which characterize the region. A main process model relates the largest and most frequent floods to the complex structure, high diversity and Amazonian lineage of the floristic composition of the forests. It also attributes the null water supply of abandoned river-beds to Chaco lineage forests, adjusted to rainfall seasonality. However, owing to the high morphological instability of the region these courses may become active or inactive throughout time by means of digression or filling in, which leads to well-developed forests growing on ancient river-beds and, conversely, dry forests growing along the margin of permanent rivers. A model is presented which, by analysing river bank community dynamics in terms of the geomorphological instability (constant river-bed migration, river-bed filling, bank formation and disintegration), shows how the structure and composition of these forests would be determined by past floods rather than by the present one.

Authors

Adamoli, Jorge, Sennhauser, Ethel, Acero, Jose M. and Rescia, Alejandro

Year Published

1990

Publication

Journal of Biogeography

Locations
DOI

10.2307/2845381

Relative Effectiveness of Repellents for Reducing Mule Deer DamageAndelt, William F.1991

Relative Effectiveness of Repellents for Reducing Mule Deer Damage

Keywords

No keywords available

Abstract

We tested the repellency of chicken eggs, MGK Big Game Repellent (BGR), coyote (Canis latrans) urine, thiram, Hinder, bars of soap, and Ro-pel on tame mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in Colorado during May and June 1989. Chicken eggs, BGR, and coyote urine performed better than the other repellents for deterring deer from feeding on pelleted rations. Consumption of rations treated with odor repellents increased from Day 1 through Day 4 of the trial, but consumption of thiram-treated rations decreased. The repellency of eggs, BGR, and coyote urine was reduced when apple twigs were sprayed with 7 cm of water to simulate heavy rainfall. When the deer were moderately hungry, even the best performing repellents failed to deter browsing.

Authors

Andelt, William F., Burnham, Kenneth P. and Manning, Jan A.

Year Published

1991

Publication

The Journal of Wildlife Management

Locations
DOI

10.2307/3809161

Sampling communities of ground-foraging ants: Pitfall catches compared with quadrat counts in an Australian tropical savannaAndersen, Alan N.1991

Sampling communities of ground-foraging ants: Pitfall catches compared with quadrat counts in an Australian tropical savanna

Keywords

No keywords available

Abstract

The relative abundances of ant species captured in pitfall traps was compared with those obtained by direct counts in quadrats at a savanna site In Kakadu National Park. Northern Territory. Two measures of abundance in traps were used, one based on total numbers of ants, the other on species frequency of occurrence. All species commonly recorded in quadrats were collected in traps, and their relative abundances were highly correlated on all occasions. Of the 20 most common species in quadrats, five occurred with a significantly different (in all cases lower) frequency in pitfall traps, but these species represented only 1.8-3.1% of total quadrat counts. Results from quadrats and pitfall traps were particularly similar (r > 0.8) when species were classified into functional groups. Frequency data from traps may sometimes overestimate the abundance of widespread, solitary foraging species (e.g. 'Chelaner' and Tetramorium spp.) and underestimate species with large colony sizes (e.g. Iridomyrmex spp.). Data based on total numbers of ants in traps may be more prone to distortion arising from species differences in locomotor behaviour. Species counts in traps could be scaled to reduce these distortions. The finding that pitfall traps gave results comparable with those from quadrat counts provides support for the use of pitfall traps in studies of Australian ant communities in open habitats.

Authors

Andersen, Alan N.

Year Published

1991

Publication

Austral Ecology

Locations
DOI

10.1111/j.1442-9993.1991.tb01054.x

The ecological role of ants in two Mexican agroecosystemsRisch, Stephen J.1982

The ecological role of ants in two Mexican agroecosystems

Keywords

No keywords available

Abstract

The development of the ant communities and their foraging dynamics were studied in two annual agroecosystems of the Mexican tropical lowlands: a "forest milpa" of corn, beans, and squash made by cutting and burning 40-year-old forest, and a "field milpa" of corn, beans, and squash made by plowing 1-year-old second growth. The ant community was sampled using tuna fish baits 26, 52, 110, and 353 days after planting. Although immediately after planting the same number of ant species occurred in each milpa type, thereafter the ant faunas diverged. The field milpa became completely dominated by the native fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, while the number of ant species in the forest milpa gradually increased over time, reaching eight species 110 days after planting and 14 species by 353 days. Initially S. geminata dominated the ant fauna in the forest milpa (occurring on 90% of the baits), but by 353 days planting it was found on only 26% of the occupied baits. Ant foraging efficiency, as measured by proportion of tuna baits occupied and the removal rates of dead Drosophila fly baits, was much higher (by a factor of 2 to 3) in the field than the forest milpa. This was caused by the extremely high density of S. geminata colonies in the field milpa. The simple Solenopsis-dominated community of the field milpa may be much more effective in biological control than the more diverse community of the forest milpa. Although S. geminata has potential negative impacts in annual agroecosystems (it stings, eats corn seeds, and guards homopterams), its overall impact appears to be beneficial. As forested areas of the lowland wet tropics are increasingly cut and converted to annual agriculture, the primary ant inhabitant of these highly disturbed environments, S. geminata, will necessarily play a much more significant ecological role in agroecosystems.

Authors

Risch, Stephen J. and Carroll, C. Ronald

Year Published

1982

Publication

Oecologia

Locations
DOI

10.1007/bf00386726

Ant recolonisation of rehabilitated bauxite mines of Poços de Caldas, BrazilMajer, Jonathan D.1992

Ant recolonisation of rehabilitated bauxite mines of Poços de Caldas, Brazil

Keywords

ants, Australia, Brazil, bauxite mining, climate, Formicidae, land rehabilitation

Abstract

The ant species weie sampled in one campo (grassy shrubland), one mata (semi- deciduous rain forest) and 11 rehabilitated bauxite mine plots at PoNos de Caldas, in the humid sub-tropical climatic region of Brazil. Rehabilitation was either by planting Australian Eucal?yptuis spp, the Brazilian Miniosa scab-ella tree, or by planting mixed mata trees. Sixty-eight ant species were recorded, of which 26 were exclusively found in the native vegetationi aind 16 wer-e confined to the rehabilitated plots. Ant species richness built up most rapidly in areas rehabilitated with mixed mata species and least rapidly in areas with Eucalyptus. Younger rehabilitated plots appeared to be developing a campo-type ant community, althouigh evidence indicates that more mata ant species will colonise once tree canopy closure takes place. Rate of ant return in Australia is positively cor-related with the quantity and distribution of rainfall - the rates in the cur-rent study concur with those from humid sub-tropical climatic zones within Australia, suggesting that similar constraints to the succession may be operating. If found to be the case, this would have practical implications for planning and evaluating the success of rehabilitation.

Authors

Majer, Jonathan D.

Year Published

1992

Publication

JOURNAL OF TROPICAL ECOLOGY

Locations
DOI

10.1017/s0266467400006155

Biodiversity and Ecological RedundancyWALKER, BRIAN H.1992

Biodiversity and Ecological Redundancy

Keywords

No keywords available

Abstract

This paper addresses the problem of which biota to choose to best satisfy the conservation goals for a particular region in the face of inadequate resources. Biodiversity is taken to be the integration of biological variability across all scales, from the genetic, through species and ecosystems, to landscapes. Conserving biodiversity is a daunting task, and the paper asserts that focusing on species is not the best approach. The best way to minimize species loss is to maintain the integrity of ecosystem function. The important questions therefore concern the kinds of biodiversity that are significant to ecosystem functioning. To best focus our efforts we need to establish how much (or how little) redundancy there is in the biological composition of ecosystems. An approach is suggested, based on the use of functional groups of organisms defined according to ecosystem processes. Functional groups with little or no redundancy warrant priority conservation effort Complementary species-based approaches for maximizing the inclusion of biodiversity within a set of conservation areas are compared to the functional-group approach.

Authors

WALKER, BRIAN H.

Year Published

1992

Publication

Conservation Biology

Locations
    DOI

    10.1046/j.1523-1739.1992.610018.x

    Terrestrial Arthropod Assemblages: Their Use in Conservation PlanningKREMEN, C.1993

    Terrestrial Arthropod Assemblages: Their Use in Conservation Planning

    Keywords

    No keywords available

    Abstract

    Arthropods, the most diverse component of terrestrial ecosystems, occupy a tremendous variety of functional niches and microhabitats across a wide array of spatial and temporal scales. We propose that conservation biologists should take advantage of terrestrial arthropod diversity as a rich data source for conservation planning and management. For reserve selection and design, documentation of the microgeography of selected arthropod taxa can delineate distinct biogeographic zones, areas of endemism, community types, and centers of evolutionary radiation to improve the spatial resolution of conservation planning. For management of natural areas, monitoring of terrestrial arthropod indicators can provide early warnings of ecological changes, and can be used to assay the effects of further fragmentation on natural areas that no longer support vertebrate indicator species. Many arthropod indicators respond to environmental changes more rapidly than do vertebrate indicators, which may exhibit population responses that do not become evident until too late for proactive management. Not all arthropod taxa are equally effective as indicators for conservation planning and the qualities of indicators can differ for purposes of inventory versus monitoring. Assemblages of arthropod taxa used as biogeographic probes in inventories should exhibit relatively high species diversity, high endemism, and encompass the geographic range of interest. For monitoring purposes, indicator assemblages should exhibit varying sensitivity to environmental perturbations and a diversity of life-history and ecological preferences.

    Authors

    KREMEN, C., COLWELL, R. K., ERWIN, T. L., MURPHY, D. D., NOSS, R. F. and SANJAYAN, M. A.

    Year Published

    1993

    Publication

    Conservation Biology

    Locations
      DOI

      10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.740796.x

      Diversity and Organization of the Ground Foraging Ant Faunas of Forest, Grassland and Tree Crops in Papua New Guinea.Room, PM1975

      Diversity and Organization of the Ground Foraging Ant Faunas of Forest, Grassland and Tree Crops in Papua New Guinea.

      Keywords

      No keywords available

      Abstract

      Thirty samples of ants were taken in each of seven habitats: primary forest, rubber plantation, coffee plantation, oilpalm plantation, kunai grassland, eucalypt savannah and urban grassland. Sixty samples were taken in cocoa plantations. A total of 156 species was taken, and the frequency of occurrence of each in each habitat is given. Eight stenoecious species are suggested as habitat indicators. Habitats fell into a series according to the similarity of their ant faunas: forest, rubber and coffee, cocoa and oilpalm, kunai and savannah, urban. This series represents an artificial, discontinuous succession from a complex stable ecosystem to a simple unstable one. Availability of species suitably preadapted to occupy habitats did not appear to limit species richness. Habitat heterogeneity and stability as affected by human interference did seem to account for inter-habitat variability in species richness. Species diversity was compared between habitats using four indices: Fisher et al.; Margalef; Shannon; Brillouin. Correlation of diversity index with habitat heterogeneity plus stability was good for the first two, moderate for Shannon, and poor for Brillouin. Greatest diversity was found in rubber, the penultimate in the series of habitats according to heterogeneity plus stability ('maturity'). Equitability exceeded the presumed maximum in rubber, and was close to the maximum in all habitats. The mosaic dispersion pattern found among ants elsewhere also appeared to be present in each habitat. The mean maximum number of territories possible to be overlapping is about 4.6; the number in a particular case probably being a function of the specialization of the dominant ant present. Ecological isolating mechanisms among ants are probably similar to those among birds; size and structure of mouthparts in ant communities warrant further study.

      Authors

      Room, PM

      Year Published

      1975

      Publication

      Australian Journal of Zoology

      Locations
      DOI

      10.1071/zo9750071

      Disturbance, Patch Formation, and Community StructureLevin, S. A.1974

      Disturbance, Patch Formation, and Community Structure

      Keywords

      No keywords available

      Abstract

      A model is developed to relate community structure to level of environmental disturbance in systems in which the effects of disturbance are localized in space and time. In general these disturbances create a pattern of spatio-temporal heterogeneity by renewing a limiting resource, thereby permitting utilization by species that are not dominant competitors. The proposed model predicts the frequency distribution of these renewed areas, with regard to size and age (colonization stage). The model thus allows one to relate overall system pattern to the local biology within these areas, to compare various areas with different levels of disturbance, and to predict the effects of new disturbance.

      Authors

      Levin, S. A. and Paine, R. T.

      Year Published

      1974

      Publication

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

      Locations
        DOI

        10.1073/pnas.71.7.2744

        Effects of Vegetation Change on Ant Communities of Arid RangelandsWisdom, W. A.1981

        Effects of Vegetation Change on Ant Communities of Arid Rangelands

        Keywords

        No keywords available

        Abstract

        We compared the density and diversity of ant colonies on areas where the vegetation had been altered by treatment with herbicides and on untreated areas. Highest densities of ant colonies were on the untreated mesquite dune habitat and the grassland habitat. The treated habitats were characterized by differences in shrub cover and composition and cover of forbs and grasses. Conomyrma bicolor and Solenopsis xyloni were significantly more numerous on the mesquite dunes and grassland, respectively. The fungus-culturing ant, Trachymyrmex smithi, was abundant on the treated dune habitats and absent In the grassland habitat. Ant communities were most similar on the two sites subjected to vegetation modification, and most different comparing those dune habitats with the untreated mesquite dunes.

        Authors

        Wisdom, W. A. and Whitford, W. G.

        Year Published

        1981

        Publication

        Environmental Entomology

        Locations
        DOI

        10.1093/ee/10.6.893

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