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United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
West Nile Virus Antibodies in Permanent Resident and Overwintering Migrant Birds in South-Central KansasShelite, Thomas R.2008

West Nile Virus Antibodies in Permanent Resident and Overwintering Migrant Birds in South-Central Kansas

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

We conducted serological studies, using epitope-blocking ELISAs directed at West Nile virus (WNV) and flavivirus antibodies, of wild birds in south-central Kansas, the first for this state, in the winters of 2003-04 through 2005-06. Overwintering migratory species (primarily the American tree sparrow and dark-eyed junco) consistently showed significantly lower seropositivity than permanent residents (primarily the northern cardinal). The cardinal showed annual variation in seropositivity between winters. Of 35 birds that were serial sampled within a single winter, one cardinal may have seroconverted between late December and mid-February, providing a preliminary suggestion of continued enzootic transmission, chronic infection, or bird-bird transfer as overwintering mechanisms. Breeding population size of the cardinal did not change after the introduction of WNV to Kansas. Of eighteen birds that were serial sampled between winters, none seroconverted. Among overwintering migrants, the Harris' Sparrow showed the highest seropositivity, possibly related to its migration route through the central Great Plains, an area of recent high WNV activity. The finding that permanent resident birds exhibit higher seropositivity than migrant birds suggests that resident birds contribute to the initiation of annual infection cycles,although this conclusion is speculative in the absence of data on viral titers and the length of viremia. KeyWords: West Nile Virus-flavivirus-birds-epitope-blocking ELISA-winter.

Authors

Shelite, Thomas R., Rogers, Christopher M., Litzner, Brandon R., Johnson, R. Roy and Schneegurt, Mark A.

Year Published

2008

Publication

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1089/vbz.2007.0176

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18471059

Avian Host-Selection by Culex pipiens in Experimental TrialsSimpson, Jennifer E.2009

Avian Host-Selection by Culex pipiens in Experimental Trials

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Evidence from field studies suggests that Culex pipiens, the primary mosquito vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern and north central United States, feeds preferentially on American robins (Turdus migratorius). To determine the contribution of innate preferences to observed preference patterns in the field, we conducted host preference trials with a known number of adult female C. pipiens in outdoor cages comparing the relative attractiveness of American robins with two common sympatric bird species, European starling, Sternus vulgaris and house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Host seeking C. pipiens were three times more likely to enter robin-baited traps when with the alternate host was a European starling (n = 4 trials; OR = 3.06; CI [1.42-6.46]) and almost twice more likely when the alternative was a house sparrow (n = 8 trials; OR = 1.80; CI = [1.22-2.90]). There was no difference in the probability of trap entry when two robins were offered (n = 8 trials). Logistic regression analysis determined that the age, sex and weight of the birds, the date of the trial, starting-time, temperature, humidity, wind-speed and age of the mosquitoes had no effect on the probability of a choosing a robin over an alternate bird. Findings indicate that preferential feeding by C. pipiens mosquitoes on certain avian hosts is likely to be inherent, and we discuss the implications innate host preferences may have on enzootic WNV transmission.

Authors

Simpson, Jennifer E., Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M., Childs, James E., Simons, Leah E., Andreadis, Theodore G. and Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.

Year Published

2009

Publication

PLOS One

Locations
DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0007861

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19924251

The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoesSiptroth, Stephen M.2011

The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes

Keywords

Clean Water Act; Vector control district; Mosquito; Malaria; West Nile virus; California, WNV

Abstract

In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts’ application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements.

Authors

Siptroth, Stephen M. and Shanahan, Richard P.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Locations
DOI

10.1016/j.jegh.2011.06.001

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856372

Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus Infection in Three Wild Raptor PopulationsStout, William E.2005

Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus Infection in Three Wild Raptor Populations

Keywords

West Nile virus, passive maternal antibody transmission, Cooper's hawk, great horned owl, red-tailed hawk, WNV

Abstract

We assayed for West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies to determine the presence and prevalence of WNV infection in three raptor populations in southeast Wisconsin during 2003–04. This study was conducted in the framework of ongoing population studies that started before WNV was introduced to the study area. For 354 samples, 88% of 42 adult Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii), 2.1% of 96 nestling Cooper's hawks, 9.2% of 141 nestling red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and 12% of 73 nestling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) tested positive for WNV antibodies by the constant virus–serum dilution neutralization test. Samples that tested positive for WNV antibodies were collected across a wide variety of habitat types, including urban habitats (both high and low density), roads, parking areas, recreational areas, croplands, pastures, grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands. Based on the increased prevalence and significantly higher WNV antibody titers in adults compared with nestlings, we suggest that nestlings with detectable antibody levels acquired these antibodies through passive transmission from the mother during egg production. Low levels of WNV antibodies in nestlings could serve as a surrogate marker of exposure in adult raptor populations. Based on breeding population densities and reproductive success over the past 15 yr, we found no apparent adverse effects of WNV infections on these wild raptor populations.

Authors

Stout, William E., Cassini, Andrew G., Meece, Jennifer K., Papp, Joseph M., Rosenfield, Robert N. and Reed, Kurt D.

Year Published

2005

Publication

Avian Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1637/7335-012805R1.1

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16252490

West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Red-Winged Blackbirds ( Agelaius phoeniceus ) from North Dakota, USA (2003–2004) Sullivan, Heather2006

West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Red-Winged Blackbirds ( Agelaius phoeniceus ) from North Dakota, USA (2003–2004)

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

This study was designed to explore the role that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) may have played in disseminating West Nile virus (WNV) across the United States. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to detect WNV antibodies in avian species we were able to determine the WNV antibody prevalence in a cohort of red-winged blackbirds in central North Dakota in 2003 and 2004. The peak WNV antibody prevalence was 22.0% in August of 2003 and 18.3% in July of 2004. The results of this study suggest that red-winged blackbird migratory populations may be an important viral dispersal mechanism with the ability to spread arboviruses such as WNV across the United States.

Authors

Linz, George, Clark, Larry, Sullivan, Heather and Salman, Mo

Year Published

2006

Publication

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1089/vbz.2006.6.305

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16989570

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Human West Nile Infection: Observation of the Dilution EffectSwaddle, John P.2008

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Human West Nile Infection: Observation of the Dilution Effect

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely been examined for other infectious diseases on a broad geographic scale. Here, we explored whether the dilution effect can be observed in the relationship between the incidence of human West Nile virus (WNV) infection and bird (host) diversity in the eastern US. We constructed a novel geospatial contrasts analysis that compares the small differences in avian diversity of neighboring US counties (where one county reported human cases of WNV and the other reported no cases) with associated between-county differences in human disease. We also controlled for confounding factors of climate, regional variation in mosquito vector type, urbanization, and human socioeconomic factors that are all likely to affect human disease incidence. We found there is lower incidence of human WNV in eastern US counties that have greater avian (viral host) diversity. This pattern exists when examining diversity-disease relationships both before WNV reached the US (in 1998) and once the epidemic was underway (in 2002). The robust disease-diversity relationships confirm that the dilution effect can be observed in another emerging infectious disease and illustrate an important ecosystem service provided by biodiversity, further supporting the growing view that protecting biodiversity should be considered in public health and safety plans.

Authors

Swaddle, John P. and Calos, Stavros E.

Year Published

2008

Publication

PLOS One

Locations
DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0002488

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18575599

Fatal Encephalitis and Myocarditis in Young Domestic Geese ( Anser anser domesticus ) Caused by West Nile Virus Swayne, David E.2001

Fatal Encephalitis and Myocarditis in Young Domestic Geese ( Anser anser domesticus ) Caused by West Nile Virus

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

During 1999 and 2000, a disease outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus occurred in humans, horses, and wild and zoological birds in the northeastern USA. In our experiments, WN virus infection of young domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) caused depression, weight loss, torticollis, opisthotonus, and death with accompanying encephalitis and myocarditis. Based on this experimental study and a field outbreak in Israel, WN virus is a disease threat to young goslings and viremia levels are potentially sufficient to infect mosquitoes and transmit WN virus to other animal species.

Authors

Swayne, David E., Beck, Joan R., Smith, Calandra S., Shieh, Wun-Ju and Zaki, Sharif R.

Year Published

2001

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid0704.010429

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11585545

Mosquito politics: Local vector control policies and the spread of West Nile Virus in the Chicago regionTedesco, Carmen2010

Mosquito politics: Local vector control policies and the spread of West Nile Virus in the Chicago region

Keywords

West Nile Virus; Mosquito abatement; Political Ecology; Clustering; Chicago; Mosquito control, WNV

Abstract

Differences in mosquito control practices at the local level involve the interplay of place, scale and politics. During the Chicago West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak of 2002, mosquito abatement districts represent distinct suburban clusters of human WNV cases, independent of characteristics of the local population, housing and physical environment. We examine how the contrasting actions of four districts reveal a distinct local politics of mosquito control that may have contributed to local-scale geographic differences in WNV incidence. This politics is rooted in political, economic and philosophical differences within and between administrative boundaries.

Authors

Tedesco, Carmen, Ruiz, Marilyn and McLafferty, Sara

Year Published

2010

Publication

Health & Place

Locations
DOI

10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.08.003

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20709590

Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and LouisianaTesh, Robert B.2004

Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in 11 dead birds and two mosquito pools collected in east Texas and southern Louisiana during surveillance studies in the winter of 2003 to 2004. These findings suggest that WNV is active throughout the year in this region of the United States.

Authors

Tesh, Robert B., Parsons, Ray, Siirin, Marina, Randle, Yvonne, Sargent, Chris, Guzman, Hilda, Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak, Higgs, Stephen, Vanlandingham, Dana L., Bala, Adil A., Haas, Keith and Zerinque, Brian

Year Published

2004

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid1009.040203

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15498169

Bloodmeal Host Congregation and Landscape Structure Impact the Estimation of Female Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Using Dry Ice-Baited TrapsThiemann, Tara2011

Bloodmeal Host Congregation and Landscape Structure Impact the Estimation of Female Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Using Dry Ice-Baited Traps

Keywords

Culex tarsalis, Anopheles freeborni, dry ice-baited traps, abundance, California, WNV

Abstract

Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency.

Authors

Thiemann, Tara, Nelms, Brittany and Reisen, William K.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/ME10273

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21661310

Recent Articles

Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

by Hartley, D. M., Barker, C. M., Le Menach, A., Niu, T., Gaff, H. D. and Reisen, W. K.

Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive rati...

published 2012 in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval culex (diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

by Gardner, Allison M., Hamer, Gabriel L., Hines, Alicia M., Newman, Christina M., Walker, Edward D. and Ruiz, Marilyn O.

Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of la...

published 2012 in Journal of Medical Entomology


Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

by Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases ...

published 2012 in Zoonoses and Public Health

Completeness of West Nile Virus Testing in Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis During an Outbreak in Arizona, Usa

by WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were te...

published 2012 in Epidemiology and Infection