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United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
West Nile Virus in Host-Seeking Mosquitoes within a Residential Neighborhood in Grand Forks, North DakotaBell, Jeffrey A.2005

West Nile Virus in Host-Seeking Mosquitoes within a Residential Neighborhood in Grand Forks, North Dakota

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) was first recovered in North Dakota near the city of Grand Forks in June 2002. During 2002, 2003, and 2004, we collected mosquitoes from Grand Forks using Mosquito Magnet™ traps and tested them for WNV. The seasonal abundance, species composition, and reproductive status of female mosquitoes were correlated with local environmental temperature and state surveillance data on WNV to determine the factors affecting local transmission of WNV. Over 90% of the mosquitoes collected were Aedes vexans, Ochlerotatus dorsalis, and Culex tarsalis, but WNV was detected only in Cx. tarsalis. Average summertime temperatures and relative abundance of mosquitoes were highest in 2002 but no WNV-positive mosquitoes were detected until the following summer. In 2003, nulliparous Cx. tarsalis appeared in mid-June (first summer brood), and parous Cx. tarsalis appeared in mid-July. The first WNV-positive pool occurred 21 July, and minimum daily infections rates increased thereafter until 27 August. The minimum infection rate (MIR) for Cx. tarsalis during the season was 5.7 infected mosquitoes per 1,000 tested, with the highest infection rates occurring at the end of the season as Cx. tarsalis populations started to decline. Mid-to-late August was identified as the period of highest risk for being bitten by a WNV-infected mosquito in Grand Forks during 2003. In 2004, viral activity in Grand Forks was low, due to very cool temperatures throughout the summer. To examine the genetic diversity of the 2003 WNV isolates from Grand Forks, we sequenced a 366-nucleotide region of the capsid and premembrane gene. Thirteen (46%) of the 28 WNV isolates contained at least one nucleotide substitution when compared to the homologous region of the progenitor WN NY-99 strain, and seven of these 13 substitutions coded for amino acid changes. Thus, WNV is established in North Dakota, it appears to be evolving and it is vectored primarily by Cx. tarsalis. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis. 5, 373–382.

Authors

Bell, Jeffrey A., Mickelson, Nathan J. and Vaughan, Jefferson A.

Year Published

2005

Publication

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1089/vbz.2005.5.373

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16417433

Relationship Between Distance From Major Larval Habitats and Abundance of Adult Mosquitoes in Semiarid Plains Landscapes in ColoradoBarker, Christopher M.2009

Relationship Between Distance From Major Larval Habitats and Abundance of Adult Mosquitoes in Semiarid Plains Landscapes in Colorado

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

We examined the relationship between distance from major larval habitats and abundance of adult mosquitoes in the semiarid plains landscape characteristic of eastern Colorado. Mosquito collection was conducted from late June to early August 2007 and included trap locations at distances ranging from <10 m up to 20-150 m and 160-373 m from three major larval habitats: one area along a river corridor and two small reservoirs. The study yielded 65,140 mosquitoes of 14 species, and five species were sufficiently abundant to be included in statistical analyses: Aedes vexans (Meigen), Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Ochlerotatus dorsalis (Meigen) (=Ae. dorsalis), Ochlerotatus melanimon (Dyar) (=Ae. melanimon), and Culex pipiens L. Distance to nearest major larval habitat was not strongly related to Culex abundance within the approximately = 400-m range from larval habitats examined in this study. Abundance of Ae. vexans declined significantly with distance from the larval habitat, whereas abundance was significantly higher in the 20-150- and 160-373-m classes compared with areas within 10 m of the larval habitat for both Ochlerotatus species. Except for Ae. vexans, however, we did not find monotonic increasing or decreasing abundance trends associated with distance from larval habitats for the 400-m range examined. This, combined with a finding that fine-scale habitat heterogeneity influenced abundance for most of the mosquitoes examined, underscores the importance of considering not only distance from larval habitat but also fine-scale habitat heterogeneity to understand how important nuisance-biters and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vectors use the landscape. We also discuss how these results relate to previous studies from western North America and explore their relevance to operational implementation of adulticides to suppress mosquito vectors during WNV disease outbreaks in the Great Plains.

Authors

Barker, Christopher M., Bolling, Bethany G., Moore, Chester G. and Eisen, Lars

Year Published

2009

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/033.046.0606

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19960672

Molecular evolution of West Nile virus in a northern temperate region: Connecticut, USA 1999–2008ARMSTRONG, PHILIP M.2011

Molecular evolution of West Nile virus in a northern temperate region: Connecticut, USA 1999–2008

Keywords

Phylogeny; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus; West Nile virus; Molecular epidemiology; Viral evolution, WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) has become firmly established in northeastern US, reemerging every summer since its introduction into North America in 1999. To determine whether WNV overwinters locally or is reseeded annually, we examined the patterns of viral lineage persistence and replacement in Connecticut over 10 consecutive transmission seasons by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, we compared the full protein coding sequence among WNV isolates to search for evidence of convergent and adaptive evolution. Viruses sampled from Connecticut segregated into a number of well-supported subclades by year of isolation with few clades persisting ≥ 2 years. Similar viral strains were dispersed in different locations across the state and divergent strains appeared within a single location during a single transmission season, implying widespread movement and rapid colonization of virus. Numerous amino acid substitutions arose in the population but only one change, V → A at position 159 of the envelope protein, became permanently fixed. Several instances of parallel evolution were identified in independent lineages, including one amino acid change in the NS4A protein that appears to be positively selected. Our results suggest that annual reemergence of WNV is driven by both reintroduction and local-overwintering of virus. Despite ongoing evolution of WNV, most amino acid variants occurred at low frequencies and were transient in the virus population.

Authors

ARMSTRONG, PHILIP M., Vossbrinck, Charles R., Andreadis, Theodore G., Anderson, John F., Pesko, Kendra N., Newman, Ruchi M., Lennon, Niall J., Birren, Bruce W., Ebel, Gregory D. and Henn, Mathew R.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Virology

Locations
DOI

10.1016/j.virol.2011.06.006

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21723580

West nile virus-associated optic neuritis and chorioretinitisAnninger, William V.2003

West nile virus-associated optic neuritis and chorioretinitis

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

No abstract available

Authors

Anninger, William V., Lomeo, Mark D., Dingle, Jack, Epstein, Avrom D. and Lubow, Martin

Year Published

2003

Publication

American Journal of Ophthalmology

Locations
DOI

10.1016/S0002-9394(03)00738-4

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14644244

Mosquito Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Connecticut, 2000: Isolation from Culex pipiens , Cx. restuans , Cx. salinarius , and CulAndreadis, Theodore G.2001

Mosquito Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Connecticut, 2000: Isolation from Culex pipiens , Cx. restuans , Cx. salinarius , and Cul

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Fourteen isolations of West Nile (WN) virus were obtained from four mosquito species (Culex pipiens [5], Cx. restuans [4], Cx. salinarius [2], and Culiseta melanura [3]) in statewide surveillance conducted from June through October 2000. Most isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in densely populated residential locales in Fairfield and New Haven counties, where the highest rates of dead crow sightings were reported and where WN virus was detected in 1999. Minimum field infection rates per 1,000 mosquitoes ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 (county based) and from 1.3 to 76.9 (site specific). Cx. restuans appears to be important in initiating WN virus transmission among birds in early summer; Cx. pipiens appears to play a greater role in amplifying virus later in the season. Cs. melanura could be important in the circulation of WN virus among birds in sylvan environments; Cx. salinarius is a suspected vector of WN virus to humans and horses.

Authors

Andreadis, Theodore G., Anderson, John F. and Vossbrinck, Charles R.

Year Published

2001

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid0704.010413

Discovery, Distribution, and Abundance of the Newly Introduced Mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USAAndreadis, Theodore G.2001

Discovery, Distribution, and Abundance of the Newly Introduced Mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

The earliest documented specimen of an exotic east Asian mosquito Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicis japonicus (Theobald) in the Western Hemisphere is reported along with the results of a state wide survey to determine the distribution and abundance of this mosquito in Connecticut. Ochlerotatus japonicus was collected from 87 locations in eight counties. It is established throughout the state and occurs in a variety of natural and artificial container habitats including discarded tire casings, bird baths, wooden barrels, porcelain bath tubs (used for watering animals), plastic milk cartons, toys, vinyl tarpaulins (covering wood piles and swimming pools), exposed rock holes in stream beds, tree holes, subterranean catch basins, surface water rain pools, and spring-fed depressions. Larvae were particularly common in containers with water, decaying leaves, and algae, in shaded and sunlit areas and, in rock-pool habitats along streambeds, in association with Ochlerotatus atropalpus (Coquillett). Adult females were collected in sod grass-infused gravid and CO2- baited light traps, from early June through October, with peak collections in September. Biting females were collected by human bait method augmented with CO2, verifying its capacity to feed on humans. The ovitraps used in this study were not effective for recovering this species. Our results suggest that Oc. japonicus was introduced into Connecticut between 1992 and 1998. Because of the ability of Oc. japonicus to transmit West Nile virus, and because of the recent detection of this virus in field-collected specimens, the introduction of Oc. japonicus is considered a significant public health development.

Authors

Andreadis, Theodore G., Anderson, John F., Munstermann, Leonard E., Wolfe, Roger J. and Florin, David A.

Year Published

2001

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/0022-2585-38.6.774

Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Connecticut: A Five-Year Analysis of Mosquito Data 1999–2003Andreadis, Theodore G.2004

Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Connecticut: A Five-Year Analysis of Mosquito Data 1999–2003

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Two hundred and ten isolations of West Nile virus (WNV) were obtained from 17 mosquito species in six genera in statewide surveillance conducted in Connecticut from June through October, 1999–2003. Culex pipiens (86), Culex salinarius (32), Culex restuans (26), Culiseta melanura (32), and Aedes vexans (12) were implicated as the most likely vectors of WNV in the region based on virus isolation data. Culex pipiens was abundant from July through September and is likely involved in early season enzootic transmission and late season epizootic amplification of the virus in wild bird populations. Epidemic transmission of WNV to humans in urban locales is probable. The abundance of Cx. restuans in June and July and isolations of WNV in early July suggest that this species may play an important role as an enzootic vector involved in early amplification of WNV virus among wild birds. Its involvement as a bridge vector to humans is unlikely. Culex salinarius was the most frequently captured Culex species and was abundant in August and September when virus activity was at its height. Frequent isolations of WNV from this species in September when the majority of human cases were reported in union with its abundance at this time of the year, demonstrated vector competence, and broad feeding habits, make Cx. salinarius a likely bridge vector to humans, horses and other mammals. Multiple isolations WNV from Cs. melanura collected in more rural locales in late August and September, provide supportive evidence to suggest that this predominant avian feeder may play a significant role in epizootic amplification of the virus among wild bird populations in these environs. Aedes vexans was the only species of Aedes or Ochlerotatus from which multiple isolations of WNV were made in more than one year and was among the most frequently trapped and abundant species throughout the season. Since Ae. vexans predominately feeds on mammals it is unlikely to play a significant role in epizootic amplification of WNV, however, because of its abundance and aggressive mammalian and human biting behavior it must receive strong consideration as a bridge vector to humans and horses. The occasional virus isolations obtained from Aedes cinereus (4), Uranotaenia sapphirina (3), Ochlerotatus canadensis (2), Ochlerotatus trivittatus (2), Ochlerotatus sollicitans (2), Ochlerotatus sticticus (2), Psorophora ferox (2), Anopheles punctipennis, Anopheles walkeri, Ochlerotatus cantator, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus in conjunction with their inefficient vector competency and host feeding preferences indicate that these species likely play a very minor role in either the enzootic maintenance or epizootic transmission of WNV in this region. The principal foci of WNV activity in Connecticut were identified as densely populated (>3,000 people/mi2) residential communities in coastal Fairfield and New Haven Counties, and in the case of 2002, similar locales in proximity of the city of Hartford in central Hartford County. In almost all instances we observed a correlation both temporally and spatially between the isolation of WNV from field-collected mosquitoes and subsequent human cases in these locales. In most years the incidence of human cases closely paralleled the number of virus isolations made from mosquitoes with both peaks falling in early September. We conclude that the isolation of WNV from fieldcollected mosquitoes is a sensitive indicator of virus activity that is associated with the risk of human infection that habitually extends from early August through the end of October in Connecticut.Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis. 4, 360–378.

Authors

Andreadis, Theodore G., Anderson, John F., Vossbrinck, Charles R. and Main, Andrew J.

Year Published

2004

Publication

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1089/vbz.2004.4.360

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15682518

A TWO-YEAR EVALUATION OF ELEVATED CANOPY TRAPPING FOR CULEX MOSQUITOES AND WEST NILE VIRUS IN AN OPERATIONAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATESAndreadis, Theodore G.2007

A TWO-YEAR EVALUATION OF ELEVATED CANOPY TRAPPING FOR CULEX MOSQUITOES AND WEST NILE VIRUS IN AN OPERATIONAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

Keywords

West Nile virus, Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, Culex salinarius, surveillance, light trap, gravid trap, elevation, WNV

Abstract

The effectiveness of CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps elevated in the tree canopy (7.6 m) was compared with light traps placed at ground level (1.5 m) and grass-sod infused gravid traps for collecting Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, and Culex salinarius and detecting West Nile virus (WNV) activity in an operational surveillance program that encompassed 12 ecologically diverse sites in Connecticut in 2004 and 2005. More than twice as many Cx. pipiens were collected on average in light traps suspended in the tree canopy than in either light or gravid traps placed at ground level. This difference was generally restricted to those collection sites where markedly greater numbers of Cx. pipiens were collected with all trapping methods but was not associated with site-specific urbanization indices. Culex restuans was not preferentially attracted to light traps suspended in the tree canopy. No differences in the overall abundance of this species were recorded with either of the 2 trapping procedures, but both light traps were more effective than the gravid traps. Culex salinarius was significantly more attracted to ground-based light traps than traps suspended in the tree canopy, while gravid traps were ineffective at all sites regardless of the level of urbanization or any other specific land-use characteristic. CO2-baited light traps placed in the tree canopy were generally superior to ground-based light traps for detecting WNV in Cx. pipiens. West Nile virus–infected females were collected more regularly, and the frequency of infected pools was significantly greater. Twofold higher minimum field infection rates (maximum likelihood estimation [MLE]  =  6.7 vs. 3.0 per 1,000 mosquitoes) were also recorded from canopy collections of this species, and virus was detected in canopy-collected females several weeks before it was detected in collections from light traps at ground level. We conclude that the use of CO2-baited light traps placed in the tree canopy for targeted trapping of Cx. pipiens and subsequent detection of WNV are likely to yield better overall results than light traps placed at ground level in this region of the northeastern United States. The virus isolation data obtained from Cx. pipiens collected in gravid traps compared favorably both temporally and spatially with results from canopy trap collections. There were no significant differences in the overall frequency of WNV-infected pools or MLEs for Cx. pipiens, but fewer total WNV isolations were made from Cx. pipiens collected in the gravid traps and virus was detected more infrequently. Results reaffirmed the utility of gravid traps as effective surveillance tools for detection of WNV in Cx. pipiens in the northeastern United States. However, findings also demonstrated that CO2-baited light traps placed in the tree canopy provided more consistent results where weekly detection of virus amplification is a critical objective. The comparative effectiveness of ground- and canopy-based light traps for detection of WNV-infected Cx. restuans and Cx. salinarius was inconclusive owing to the limited number of virus isolations that were made from these species during the 2 years of study. However, WNV virus isolations were made several weeks earlier and more frequently from Cx. restuans collected in traps placed in the canopy rather than at ground level in 2004. Results support the view that ground-based light traps are more effective for detection of WNV in Cx. salinarius.

Authors

Andreadis, Theodore G. and ARMSTRONG, PHILIP M.

Year Published

2007

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/8756-971X(2007)23[137:ATEOEC]2.0.CO;2

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17847845

Studies on Hibernating Populations of Culex pipiens from a West Nile Virus Endemic Focus in New York City: Parity Rates and Isolation of West Nile VirusAndreadis, Theodore G.2010

Studies on Hibernating Populations of Culex pipiens from a West Nile Virus Endemic Focus in New York City: Parity Rates and Isolation of West Nile Virus

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

A 3-year study was undertaken to examine the parity status, survival, and prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in overwintering populations of Culex pipiens pipiens collected from a hibernaculum located in a WNV endemic region in New York City. Nearly 6,000 females were collected from December through April. Parity rates were highest among females collected in December and January, ranging from 12.3% to 21.9%, depending on the year. In each year of the study, the proportion of parous females declined significantly during the course of the winter; the percentage of parous females found in April ranged from 0.9% to 10%. Results provide unequivocal evidence that parous Cx. p. pipiens females from this region of the northeastern US enter hibernacula in the fall in comparatively high proportions not previously recognized for this species, and while these females experience significant mortality during the winter, some survived to April to emerge in the spring. The absence of any detectible blood remnants in overwintering females reaffirms that blood feeding does not occur among diapausing females during the winter. The possibility that a portion of the diapausing population may be autogenous as a result of hybridization with sympatric belowground populations of Cx. p. pipiens "form molestus" is discussed. A single isolation of WNV was obtained in Vero cell culture from a pool of 50 females collected on January 11, 2007, representing an infection prevalence of 0.07% in the overwintering population in 2007 (n = 1,370 mosquitoes, 33 pools). No isolations of WNV were made from mosquitoes collected in 2008 (n = 1,870 mosquitoes, 190 pools) or 2009 (n = 1,767 mosquitoes, 184 pools). Findings provide further evidence for local overwintering of WNV in diapausing Cx. p. pipiens, albeit at very low rates, consistent with the paucity of WNV-positive mosquitoes detected in June and early July despite the emergence of females from hibernacula in early May in this region.

Authors

Andreadis, Theodore G., ARMSTRONG, PHILIP M. and Bajwa, Waheed I.

Year Published

2010

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/10-6004.1

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21033052

North American West Nile virus genotype isolates demonstrate differential replicative capacities in response to temperatureAndrade, C. C.2011

North American West Nile virus genotype isolates demonstrate differential replicative capacities in response to temperature

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

The presence of West Nile virus (WNV) was first documented in California, USA, during the summer of 2003, and subsequently the virus has become endemic throughout the state. Sequence analysis has demonstrated that the circulating strains are representative of the North American (WN02) genotype that has displaced the East Coast genotype (NY99). A recent study has indicated that enhanced vector competence at elevated temperatures may have played a role in the displacement of the East Coast genotype by WN02. In the current study, four WN02 strains from California, including an initial 2003 isolate (COAV997), were compared to strain NY99 in growth curve assays in mosquito and duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cell lines at differing, biologically relevant temperatures to assess the relative temperature sensitivities of these natural isolates. COAV997 was significantly debilitated in viral replication in DEF cells at 44 °C. Full-length sequence comparison of COAV997 against the NY99 reference strain revealed non-synonymous mutations in the envelope glycoprotein (V159A), non-structural protein 1 (NS1) (K110N) and non-structural protein 4A (NS4A) (F92L), as well as two mutations in the 3' UTR: C→T at nt 10 772 and A→G at nt 10 851. These non-synonymous mutations were introduced into the NY99 viral backbone by site-directed mutagenesis. A mutant containing the NS1-K110N and NS4A-F92L mutations exhibited a debilitated growth phenotype in DEF cells at 44 °C, similar to that of COAV997. One explanation for the subsistence of this genotype is that COAV997 was obtained from an area of California where avian host species might not present elevated temperatures. These data indicate that the NS1 and NS4A mutations identified in some WN02 isolates could reduce thermal stability and impede replication of virus at temperatures observed in febrile avian hosts.

Authors

Andrade, C. C., Maharaj, P. D., Reisen, W. K. and Brault, A. C.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of General Virology

Locations
DOI

10.1099/vir.0.032318-0

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21775581

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