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United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
West Nile Virus Antibodies in Bats from New Jersey and New YorkPilipski, Jacob D.2004

West Nile Virus Antibodies in Bats from New Jersey and New York

Keywords

Antibodies, bats, New Jersey, survey, West Nile virus, WNV

Abstract

Eighty-three serum samples were obtained from big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown (Myotis lucifugus), and northern long-eared (Myotis septentrionalis) bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), from New Jersey and New York (USA) between July and October 2002. Samples were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. One little brown bat and one northern long-eared bat tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies. No bats had antibodies to SLE virus. This was the first large-scale investigation of WNV infection in bats in New Jersey. Additional work is needed to determine the effects of WNV on bat populations.

Authors

Pilipski, Jacob D., Pilipski, Lucas M. and Risley, Lance S.

Year Published

2004

Publication

Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.7589/0090-3558-40.2.335

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15362837

Field-Caught Culex erythrothorax Larvae Found Naturally Infected with West Nile Virus in Grand County, UtahPhillips, Robert A.2006

Field-Caught Culex erythrothorax Larvae Found Naturally Infected with West Nile Virus in Grand County, Utah

Keywords

West Nile virus, Culex erythrothorax, vertical transmission, transovarial transmission, overwintering, WNV

Abstract

Culex erythrothorax larvae were collected from a bulrush-cattail marsh near Moab, Grand County, Utah, October 28, 2004, and found positive for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This demonstrates WNV vertical transmission in this species in the wild and suggests that vertical transmission in overwintering Cx. erythrothorax larvae may contribute to WNV overwintering.

Authors

Phillips, Robert A. and Christensen, Kimberly

Year Published

2006

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/8756-971X(2006)22[561:FCELFN]2.0.CO;2

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17067064

Predictable ecology and geography of West Nile virus transmission in the central United StatesPeterson, A. Townsend2008

Predictable ecology and geography of West Nile virus transmission in the central United States

Keywords

West Nile virus, ecological niche modeling, prediction, forecasting, WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) arrived in North America and spread rapidly through the western hemisphere. We present a series of tests to determine whether ecological factors are consistently associated with WNV transmission to humans. We analyzed human WNV cases in the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio in 2002 and 2003, building ecological niche models to associate WNV case occurrences with ecological and environmental parameters. In essentially all tests, both within states, among states, between years, and across the region, we found high predictivity of WNV case distributions, suggesting that one or more elements in the WNV transmission cycle has a strong ecological determination. Areas in the geographic region included in this study predicted as suitable for WNV transmission tended to have lower values of the vegetation indices in the summer months, pointing to consistent ecological differences between suitable and unsuitable areas.

Authors

Nasci, Roger, Peterson, A. Townsend, Robbins, Amber, Restifo, Robert and Howell, James

Year Published

2008

Publication

Journal of Vector Ecology

Locations
DOI

10.3376/1081-1710-33.2.342

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19263855

Climatic and landscape correlates for potential West Nile virus mosquito vectors in the Seattle regionPecoraro, Heidi L.2007

Climatic and landscape correlates for potential West Nile virus mosquito vectors in the Seattle region

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Climatic and landscape patterns have been associated with both relative mosquito abundance and transmission of mosquito-borne illnesses in many parts of the world, especially warm and tropical climes. To determine if temperature, precipitation, or degree of urbanization were similarly important in the number of potential mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in the moderately temperate climate of western Washington, mosquitoes were collected using CDC carbon-dioxide/light traps set throughout the Seattle region during the summers of 2003 and 2004. The type and abundance of recovered species were compared to ecological correlates. Temperature and mosquito abundance were positively correlated, while precipitation was not strongly correlated with numbers of mosquitoes. Potential WNV mosquito vectors were most abundant in urban and suburban sites, including sites near communal roosts of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Exurban sites had the greatest vector species diversity, and Culex pipiens was the most abundant species throughout the region.

Authors

Pecoraro, Heidi L., Day, Heather L., Reineke, Robert, Stevens, Nathan, Withey, John C., Marzluff, John M. and Meschke, J. Scott

Year Published

2007

Publication

Journal of Vector Ecology

Locations
DOI

10.3376/1081-1710(2007)32[22:CALCFP]2.0.CO;2

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17633422

Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat Patrican, Lisa A.2007

Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Mosquito feeding patterns identify vertebrate species potentially involved in the amplification of West Nile virus. In New York, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) were the predominant hosts in most habitats. Crow (Corvus sp.) blood meals were most frequently identified from sewage treatment plant and storm water catch basin habitats.

Authors

UNNASCH, THOMAS R., Patrican, Lisa A., Hackett, Laura E., McGowan, Jay W. and Lee, Joon-Hak

Year Published

2007

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid1312.070275

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18258048

Environmental Predictors of Human West Nile Virus Infections, ColoradoPatnaik, Jennifer L.2007

Environmental Predictors of Human West Nile Virus Infections, Colorado

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

To determine whether environmental surveillance of West Nile virus–positive dead birds, mosquito pools, equines, and sentinel chickens helped predict human cases in metropolitan Denver, Colorado, during 2003, we analyzed human surveillance data and environmental data. Birds successfully predicted the highest proportion of human cases, followed by mosquito pools, and equines.

Authors

Patnaik, Jennifer L., Juliusson, Lara and Vogt, Richard L.

Year Published

2007

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid1311.070506

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18217573

Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Diagnostic Assays for Detecting West Nile Virus in Oropharyngeal Swabs from California Wild BirdsPadgett, Kerry A.2006

Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Diagnostic Assays for Detecting West Nile Virus in Oropharyngeal Swabs from California Wild Birds

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Three diagnostic assays for detecting West Nile virus (WNV) in avian oral swabs were evaluated in California in 2004 and 2005: two commercial antigen-capture assays, VecTest and Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP), and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of oral swabs in a specialized viral transport medium (VTM). Results from this study demonstrated that VTM was excellent for transportation and maintenance of WNV in avian oral swab samples and allowed for detection by RT-PCR and subsequent confirmation by virus isolation. Oral swabs and kidney tissue in VTM tested by RT-PCR were found to have similar accuracy in detecting WNV in corvids. The two antigen-capture assays, VecTest and RAMP, provided few false positives for corvids, with over 95% specificity. When performed by multiple local agencies throughout the state, VecTest and RAMP were similarly sensitive for oral swabs of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (70% and 64%, respectively). Data from known WNV positive corvid oral swabs in VTM tested by antigen-capture assays at a diagnostic laboratory suggested that RAMP was more sensitive than VecTest. Due to high probability of false negatives, neither test is recommended for use on non-corvids. While WNV antigen-capture assays were effective screening tools for corvids, they were markedly less sensitive for Western Scrub Jays (Aphelocoma californica).

Authors

Woods, Leslie, Husted, Stan, Kramer, Vicki, Padgett, Kerry A., Cahoon-Young, Barbara, Carney, Ryan and Read, Deryck

Year Published

2006

Publication

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1089/vbz.2006.6.183

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16796516

Locating suitable habitats for West Nile Virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in Shelby County, TennesseeOzdenerol, Esra2008

Locating suitable habitats for West Nile Virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in Shelby County, Tennessee

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV) poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we identified areas of Shelby County that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV, based on similarity of environmental characteristics to areas where WNV was found. The environmental characteristics in this study were based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, such as elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, and precipitation. Results Our analyses produced maps of likely habitats of WNV-infected mosquitoes for each week of August 2004, revealing the areas that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV within the core of the Memphis urban area. By comparing neighbourhood social characteristics to the environmental factors that contribute to WNV infection, potential social drivers of WNV transmission were revealed in Shelby County. Results show that human population characteristics and housing conditions such as a high percentage of black population, low income, high rental occupation, old structures, and vacant housing are associated with the focal area of WNV identified for each week of the study period. Conclusion We demonstrated that use of the Mahalanobis Distance statistic as a similarity index to assess environmental characteristics is a potential raster-based approach to identify areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining the virus. This approach was also useful to monitor changes over time for likely locations of infected mosquito habitats. This technique is very helpful for authorities when making decisions related to an integrated mosquito management plan and targeted health education outreach.

Authors

Ozdenerol, Esra, Bialkowska-Jelinska, Elzbieta and Taff, Gregory N

Year Published

2008

Publication

International Journal of Health Geographics

Locations
DOI

10.1186/1476-072X-7-12

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18373868

Test of Recrudescence Hypothesis for Overwintering of West Nile Virus in Gray CatbirdsOwen, J. C.2010

Test of Recrudescence Hypothesis for Overwintering of West Nile Virus in Gray Catbirds

Keywords

West Nile virus, overwintering, Dumetella carolinensis, testosterone, migration, WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus is a pathogen of concern for both human and wildlife health, Although many aspects of the ecology of West Nile virus are well understood, the mechanisms by which this and similar mosquito-borne viruses overwinter and become reinitiated each spring in temperate regions is not known. A thorough understanding of this mechanism is crucial to risk assessment and development of control strategies. One of the hypotheses to explain the mechanism by which this virus persists from year to year is the spring recrudescence of latent virus in avian reservoir hosts. Stress-related immunosuppression is implicated in the recrudescence of latent viruses in birds. We tested the spring recrudescence hypothesis in a controlled laboratory experiment using hatching-year gray catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis) captured in northern Ohio (July–August 2006), Catbirds (n = 60) were experimentally infected (September 2006) and later examined for the effects of immuno-suppression through exogenous hormones and artificially induced migratory disposition, We found no effect of either testosterone or migratory behavior on infection status in any of the treatment birds. Moreover, we detected no viral RNA in the kidney, spleen, brain, or liver upon necropsy at 24 wk postinfection.

Authors

Owen, J. C., Moore, F. R., Williams, A. J., Ward, M. P., Beveroth, T. A., Miller, E. A., Wilson, L. C., Morley, V. J., Abbey-Lee, R. N., Veeneman, B. A., Derussy, B. M., McWhorter, M. S. and Garvin, M. C.

Year Published

2010

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/ME09035

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20496593

Discovering Spatio-Temporal Models of the Spread of West Nile VirusOrme-Zavaleta, Jennifer2006

Discovering Spatio-Temporal Models of the Spread of West Nile Virus

Keywords

Community model;infectious disease;integrated risk analysis;probabilistic;relational model;West Nile virus, WNV

Abstract

Emerging infectious diseases are characterized by complex interactions among disease agents, vectors, wildlife, humans, and the environment.(1–3) Since the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in New York City in 1999, it has infected over 8,000 people in the United States, resulting in several hundred deaths in 46 contiguous states.(4) The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and maintained in various bird reservoir hosts.(5) Its unexpected introduction, high morbidity, and rapid spread have left public health agencies facing severe time constraints in a theory-poor environment, dependent largely on observational data collected by independent survey efforts and much uncertainty. Current knowledge may be expressed as a priori constraints on models learned from data. Accordingly, we applied a Bayesian probabilistic relational approach to generate spatially and temporally linked models from heterogeneous data sources. Using data collected from multiple independent sources in Maryland, we discovered the integrated context in which infected birds are plausible indicators for positive mosquito pools and human cases for 2001 and 2002.

Authors

Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer, Jorgensen, Jane, D'Ambrosio, Bruce, Altendorf, Eric and Rossignol, Philippe A.

Year Published

2006

Publication

Risk Analysis

Locations
DOI

10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00738.x

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16573630

Recent Articles

Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

by Hartley, D. M., Barker, C. M., Le Menach, A., Niu, T., Gaff, H. D. and Reisen, W. K.

Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive rati...

published 2012 in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval culex (diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

by Gardner, Allison M., Hamer, Gabriel L., Hines, Alicia M., Newman, Christina M., Walker, Edward D. and Ruiz, Marilyn O.

Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of la...

published 2012 in Journal of Medical Entomology


Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

by Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases ...

published 2012 in Zoonoses and Public Health

Completeness of West Nile Virus Testing in Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis During an Outbreak in Arizona, Usa

by WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were te...

published 2012 in Epidemiology and Infection