Small

United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
West Nile Virus Detection in Kidney, Cloacal, and Nasopharyngeal SpecimensOhajuruka, Ojimadu A.2005

West Nile Virus Detection in Kidney, Cloacal, and Nasopharyngeal Specimens

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

We compared kidney tissue samples and cloacal and nasopharyngeal swab samples from field-collected dead crows and blue jays for West Nile virus surveillance. Compared to tissue samples, 35% more swab samples were false negative. Swab samples were usually positive only when the corresponding tissue sample was strongly positive.

Authors

Ohajuruka, Ojimadu A., Berry, Richard L., Grimes, Sheila and Farkas, Susanne

Year Published

2005

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid1209.050016

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16229775

Husbandry of wild-caught greater sage-grouseOesterle, P2005

Husbandry of wild-caught greater sage-grouse

Keywords

Artemisia, Centrocercus urophasianus, husbandry, sage-grouse, West Nile virus

Abstract

This study reports the first successful husbandry and breeding in captivity of wild-caught greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). In October 2003, 21 hatch-year greater sage-grouse were trapped in northwestern Nevada and transported to Fort Collins, Colorado. We held grouse in pens at the United States Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center for 8 months. We offered a varied diet, including native food items such as sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata and A. tripartita) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). We housed grouse in a large flight pen and allowed to them free-range as one flock. Mortality rate was 16.7%. Several of the grouse exhibited breeding behavior, and 13 eggs were laid. We describe the techniques used to house and feed wild-caught sage-grouse. This study has conservation implications for captive breeding of this species of concern.

Authors

Oesterle, P; McLean, R; Dunbar, M; Clark, L

Year Published

2005

Publication

Wildlife Society Bulletin

Locations
DOI

10.2193/0091-7648(2005)33[1055:HOWGS]2.0.CO;2

Prevalence and Pathology of West Nile Virus in Naturally Infected House Sparrows, Western Nebraska, 2008O'Brien, V. A.2010

Prevalence and Pathology of West Nile Virus in Naturally Infected House Sparrows, Western Nebraska, 2008

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Nestling birds are rarely sampled in the field for most arboviruses, yet they may be important in arbovirus amplification cycles. We sampled both nestling and adult house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in western Nebraska for West Nile virus (WNV) or WNV-specific antibodies throughout the summer of 2008 and describe pathology in naturally infected nestlings. Across the summer, 4% of nestling house sparrows were WNV-positive; for the month of August alone, 12.3% were positive. Two WNV-positive nestlings exhibited encephalitis, splenomegaly, hepatic necrosis, nephrosis, and myocarditis. One nestling sparrow had large mural thrombi in the atria and ventricle and immunohistochemical staining of WNV antigen in multiple organs including the wall of the aorta and pulmonary artery; cardiac insufficiency thus may have been a cause of death. Adult house sparrows showed an overall seroprevalence of 13.8% that did not change significantly across the summer months. The WNV-positive nestlings and the majority of seropositive adults were detected within separate spatial clusters. Nestling birds, especially those reared late in the summer when WNV activity is typically greatest, may be important in virus amplification.

Authors

O'Brien, V. A., Meteyer, C. U., Reisen, W. K., Ip, H. S. and Brown, C. R.

Year Published

2010

Publication

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Locations
DOI

10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0515

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439979

Proximity of Residence to Bodies of Water and Risk for West Nile Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study in Houston, TexasNolan, Melissa S.2012

Proximity of Residence to Bodies of Water and Risk for West Nile Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study in Houston, Texas

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne virus, has clinically affected hundreds of residents in the Houston metropolitan area since its introduction in 2002. This study aimed to determine if living within close proximity to a water source increases one's odds of infection with WNV. We identified 356 eligible WNV-positive cases and 356 controls using a population proportionate to size model with US Census Bureau data. We found that living near slow moving water sources was statistically associated with increased odds for human infection, while living near moderate moving water systems was associated with decreased odds for human infection. Living near bayous lined with vegetation as opposed to concrete also showed increased risk of infection. The habitats of slow moving and vegetation lined water sources appear to favor the mosquito-human transmission cycle. These methods can be used by resource-limited health entities to identify high-risk areas for arboviral disease surveillance and efficient mosquito management initiatives.

Authors

Nolan, Melissa S., Zangeneh, Ana, Khuwaja, Salma A., Martinez, Diana, Rossmann, Susan N., Cardenas, Victor and Murray, Kristy O.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

Locations
DOI

10.1155/2012/159578

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315511

Naturally Induced Humoral Immunity to West Nile Virus Infection in RaptorsNemeth, Nicole M.2008

Naturally Induced Humoral Immunity to West Nile Virus Infection in Raptors

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) infection can be fatal to many bird species, including numerous raptors, though population- and ecosystem-level impacts following introduction of the virus to North America have been difficult to document. Raptors occupy a diverse array of habitats worldwide and are important to ecosystems for their role as opportunistic predators. We documented initial (primary) WNV infection and then regularly measured WNV-specific neutralizing antibody titers in 16 resident raptors of seven species, plus one turkey vulture. Most individuals were initially infected and seroconverted between July and September of 2003, though three birds remained seronegative until summer 2006. Many of these birds became clinically ill upon primary infection, with clinical signs ranging from loss of appetite to moderate neurological disease. Naturally induced WNV neutralizing antibody titers remained essentially unchanged in some birds, while eight individuals experienced secondary rises in titer presumably due to additional exposures at 1, 2, or 3 years following primary infection. No birds experienced clinical signs surrounding or following the time of secondary exposure, and therefore antibodies were considered protective. Results of this study have implications for transmission dynamics of WNV and health of raptor populations, as well as the interpretation of serologic data from free-ranging and captive birds. Antibodies in raptors surviving WNV may persist for multiple years and protect against potential adverse effects of subsequent exposures.

Authors

Komar, Nicholas, Nemeth, Nicole M., Kratz, Gail E., Bates, Rebecca, Scherpelz, Judy A. and Bowen, Richard A.

Year Published

2008

Publication

EcoHealth

Locations
DOI

10.1007/s10393-008-0183-z

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18677535

West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouseNaugle, DE2004

West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse

Keywords

Centrocercus urophasianus, emerging infectious disease, endangered species; greater sage-grouse; mosquito; population decline; survival; vector surveillance; West Nile virus

Abstract

Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species that has declined 45-80% and is endangered in Canada and under current consideration for federal listing in the US. We show that WNv reduced late-summer survival an average of 25% in four radio-marked populations in the western US and Canada. Serum from 112 sage-grouse collected after the outbreak show that none had antibodies, suggesting that they lack resistance. The spread of WNv represents a significant new stressor on sage-grouse and probably other at-risk species. While managing habitat might lessen its impact on sage-grouse populations, WNv has left wildlife and public health officials scrambling to address surface water and vector control issues in western North America.

Authors

Naugle, DE; Aldridge, CL; Walker, BL; Cornish, TE; Moynahan, BJ; Holloran, MJ; Brown, K; Johnson, GD; Schmidtmann, ET; Mayer, RT; Kato, CY; Matchett, MR; Christiansen, TJ; Cook, WE; Creekmore, T; Falise, RD; Rinkes, ET; Boyce, MS

Year Published

2004

Publication

Ecology Letters

Locations
DOI

10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00631.x

West Nile virus and sage-grouse: What more have we learned?Naugle, DE2005

West Nile virus and sage-grouse: What more have we learned?

Keywords

Centrocercus urophasianus; emerging infectious disease; monitoring; population decline; sage-grouse; survival; West Nile virus

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNv) has emerged as a new issue in the conservation of native avifauna in North America. Mortality associated with WNv infection decreased survival of female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) by 25% across 4 populations in Wyoming and Montana, USA, and Alberta, Canada, in 2003. In 2004 WNv spread to populations in Colorado and California, and female survival in late summer was 10% lower at 4 sites with confirmed WNv mortalities (86% survival) than at 8 sites without (96%). We still have no evidence that sage-grouse show resistance to the virus. The 2004 WNv season was not the catastrophe that many had predicted, and the decrease in prevalence of infection and mortality in sage-grouse, humans, and horses (except in California) has left many wondering if the worst has past. Evidence suggests that risk of infection was low in 2004 because unseasonably cool summer temperatures delayed or reduced mosquito production. Moreover, mortalities occurred 2-3 weeks later in 2004 than in 2003, and the shift to later timing was consistent between years at sites where WNv reduced survival both years. Mosquito surveillance data indicated a sharp decline in prevalence and infection rate of adult C. tarsalis in southeast Alberta, the most northern latitude where WNv reduced survival, in 2003 but not in 2004. A full understanding of the implications of WNv for sage-grouse requires a long-term, coordinated monitoring strategy among researchers and a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the role of WNv in population viability. Epidemiological research examining the prevalence and ecology of the virus among reservoir hosts is crucial.

Authors

Naugle, DE; Aldridge, CL; Walker, BL; Doherty, KE; Matchett, MR; McIntosh, J; Cornish, TE; Boyce, MS

Year Published

2005

Publication

Wildlife Society Bulletin

Locations
DOI

10.2193/0091-7648(2005)33[616:WNVASW]2.0.CO;2

West Nile Virus in Overwintering Culex Mosquitoes, New York City, 2000 Nasci, Roger S.2001

West Nile Virus in Overwintering Culex Mosquitoes, New York City, 2000

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

After the 1999 West Nile (WN) encephalitis outbreak in New York, 2,300 overwintering adult mosquitoes were tested for WN virus by cell culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. WN viral RNA and live virus were found in pools of Culex mosquitoes. Persistence in overwintering Cx. pipiens may be important in the maintenance of WN virus in the northeastern United States.

Authors

Miller, James R., WHITE, DENNIS J., Nasci, Roger S., Savage, Harry M., Cropp, Bruce C., Godsey, Marvin S., Kerst, Amy J., Bennett, Paul, Gottfried, Kristy and Lanciotti, Robert S.

Year Published

2001

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid0704.010426

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11585542

The Impact of Adulticide Applications on Mosquito Density in Chicago, 2005Mutebi, John-Paul2011

The Impact of Adulticide Applications on Mosquito Density in Chicago, 2005

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

The city of Chicago used ground ultra-low volume treatments of sumithrin (ANVIL 10+10) in areas with high West Nile virus infection rates among Culex mosquitoes. Two sequential treatments in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports wk 31 and 32 decreased mean mosquito density by 54% from 2.5 to 1.1 mosquitoes per trap-day, whereas mosquito density increased by 153% from 1.3 to 3.3 mosquitoes per trap-day at the nonsprayed sites. The difference between these changes in mosquito density was statistically significant (confidence intervals for the difference in change: -4.7 to -1.9). Sequential adulticide treatments in September (wk 34 and 35) had no effect on mosquito density, probably because it was late in the season and the mosquitoes were presumably entering diapause and less active. Overall, there was significant decrease in mosquito density at the trap sites treated in all 4 wk (wk 31, 32, 34, and 35), suggesting that sustained sequential treatments suppressed mosquito density. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) of infection rate estimates varied independently of adulticide treatments, suggesting that the adulticide treatments had no direct effect on MLE. Mosquito trap counts were low, which was probably due to large numbers of alternative oviposition sites, especially catch basins competing with the gravid traps.

Authors

Mutebi, John-Paul, Delorey, Mark J., Jones, Roderick C., Plate, David K., Gerber, Susan I., Gibbs, Kevin P., Sun, Gouhe, Cohen, Nicole J. and Paul, William S.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/10-6045.1

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21476450

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PROCESS VARIANCE IN ANNUAL SURVIVAL OF FEMALE GREATER SAGE-GROUSE IN MONTANAMoynahan, Brendan J.2006

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PROCESS VARIANCE IN ANNUAL SURVIVAL OF FEMALE GREATER SAGE-GROUSE IN MONTANA

Keywords

breeding status vs. survival;Centrocercus urophasianus;Greater Sage-Grouse;habitat protection;known fate;Montana, USA;population dynamics;process variance;program MARK;sagebrush;survival estimation;winter weather

Abstract

Populations of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined by 69–99% from historic levels, and information on population dynamics of these birds at a landscape scale is essential to informed management. We examined the relationships between hen survival and a suite of landscape-scale habitat and environmental conditions. We radio-marked 237 female Sage-Grouse and measured 426 vegetation plots during 2001–2004 at four sites in a 3200-km2 landscape in north-central Montana, USA. We used program MARK to model monthly survival rates for 11 seasonal intervals. There was strong support for the best-approximating model (AICc weight = 0.810), which indicated that (1) hen survival varied by season within years and by year within seasons, (2) nesting hens had higher nesting-season survival than non-nesting hens, and (3) individuals at one site had lower hunting-season survival than at other sites. We observed considerable variation in hen survival. Process variation was 0.255, with an expected range of annual survival of 0.12 to 1.0. The ratio of process to total variation was 0.999, indicating that observed variation was real and not attributable to sampling variation. We observed a nearly fourfold difference in maximum and minimum annual survival, ranging from 0.962 ± 0.024 (mean ± se) for nesting hens in 2001–2002 to 0.247 ± 0.050) for non-nesters in 2003–2004. Low annual survival in 2003 resulted from the compounded effects of a West Nile virus outbreak in August and a severe winter in 2003–2004. Increased hen mortality associated with severe winter weather contrasts with prior beliefs that Sage-Grouse populations are typically unaffected by winter weather conditions and underscores the importance of protecting winter sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats.

Authors

Moynahan, Brendan J., Mark S. Lindberg, and Jack Ward Thomas.

Year Published

2006

Publication

Ecological Applications

Locations
DOI

10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[1529:FCTPVI]2.0.CO;2

This article contributed by:

Ecological Society of America

Recent Articles

Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

by Hartley, D. M., Barker, C. M., Le Menach, A., Niu, T., Gaff, H. D. and Reisen, W. K.

Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive rati...

published 2012 in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval culex (diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

by Gardner, Allison M., Hamer, Gabriel L., Hines, Alicia M., Newman, Christina M., Walker, Edward D. and Ruiz, Marilyn O.

Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of la...

published 2012 in Journal of Medical Entomology


Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

by Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases ...

published 2012 in Zoonoses and Public Health

Completeness of West Nile Virus Testing in Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis During an Outbreak in Arizona, Usa

by WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were te...

published 2012 in Epidemiology and Infection