Small

United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
West Nile Virus in Overwintering Culex Mosquitoes, New York City, 2000 Nasci, Roger S.2001

West Nile Virus in Overwintering Culex Mosquitoes, New York City, 2000

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

After the 1999 West Nile (WN) encephalitis outbreak in New York, 2,300 overwintering adult mosquitoes were tested for WN virus by cell culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. WN viral RNA and live virus were found in pools of Culex mosquitoes. Persistence in overwintering Cx. pipiens may be important in the maintenance of WN virus in the northeastern United States.

Authors

Miller, James R., WHITE, DENNIS J., Nasci, Roger S., Savage, Harry M., Cropp, Bruce C., Godsey, Marvin S., Kerst, Amy J., Bennett, Paul, Gottfried, Kristy and Lanciotti, Robert S.

Year Published

2001

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid0704.010426

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11585542

Simulation Studies of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses: The Impact of Bird MortalityLord, Cynthia C.2001

Simulation Studies of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses: The Impact of Bird Mortality

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNv) has spread through much of the eastern United States following its introduction in 1999, and arrived in Florida in 2001. Prior to its arrival, we anticipated that its transmission cycle was likely to be similar to that of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEv). However, high levels of avian mortality have been reported for WNv in the northeastern United States, and it was unknown how this would impact the transmission dynamics of WNv. Simulation models were used to compare the two viruses by considering the impact of bird mortality on the transmission dynamics of arboviruses in south Florida. Transmission models without disease-induced mortality (SLEv) were compared with models including disease-induced mortality (WNv). Disease-induced mortality depressed transmission, eliminating epizootics in two of 14 simulations that were epizootic without the additional mortality. In both models, the most important factor in the likelihood of epizootics was mosquito population size; the mosquito mortality rate was also important. The additional avian mortality altered the factors most important in the size and timing of epizootics, although it did not always directly affect the outcome of the simulations. In some cases, low-level transmission occurred prior to the epizootic peak. When disease-induced avian mortality was included in the simulations, appreciable numbers of dead birds occurred prior to high levels of infection in mosquitoes. This has implications for the use of dead birds as a surveillance tool monitoring the spread and transmission of WNv.

Authors

Lord, Cynthia C. and Day, Jonathan F.

Year Published

2001

Publication

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1089/15303660160025930

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12653130

Effect of Incubation at Overwintering Temperatures on the Replication of West Nile Virus in New York Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)Dohm, David J.2001

Effect of Incubation at Overwintering Temperatures on the Replication of West Nile Virus in New York Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

We examined the effect of simulated overwintering temperatures on West Nile (WN) virus replication in Culex pipiens L. derived from mosquitoes collected during the autumn 1999 WN epizootic in New York. The WN virus was a strain isolated from a dead crow also collected during this outbreak. Virus was recovered from most mosquitoes held exclusively at 26 degres C. In contrast, none of the mosquitoes held exclusively at the lower temperatures had detectable infections. When mosquitoes were transferred to 26 degrees C after being held at 10 degrees C for 21-42 d, infection and dissemination rates increased with increased incubation at 26 degrees C. Future studies involving the attempted isolation of WN virus from overwintering mosquitoes may benefit from holding the mosquitoes at 26 degrees C before testing for infectious virus.

Authors

Dohm, David J. and Turell, Michael J.

Year Published

2001

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/0022-2585-38.3.462

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11372976

A Live Attenuated West Nile Virus Strain as a Potential Veterinary VaccineLUSTIG, SHLOMO2000

A Live Attenuated West Nile Virus Strain as a Potential Veterinary Vaccine

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

This article reviews the development of two attenuated West Nile virus (WNV) variants, WNI-25 and WNI-25A. These variants have lost the neuroinvasion trait of the parental virus. Attenuation was achieved through serial passages in mosquito cells and neutralization escape from WNV-specific monoclonal antibody. Genetic analysis reveals amino acid changes between the parental and each of the variants. The attenuated variants preserve the ability to replicate in mice and geese and to induce a protective immune response. WNI-25A was found to be a genetically stable virus. This variant was successfully used as a live vaccine to protect geese against a wild-type virulent WNV field isolate that closely resembles the WNV isolated during the 1999 New York epidemic.

Authors

LUSTIG, SHLOMO, OLSHEVSKY, UDY, BEN-NATHAN, DAVID, LACHMI, BAT-EL, MALKINSON, MERTYN, KOBILER, DAVID and HALEVY, MENACHEM

Year Published

2000

Publication

Viral Immunology

Locations
DOI

10.1089/vim.2000.13.401

West Nile Virus in the New World: Appearance, Persistence, and Adaptation to a New Econiche—An Opportunity TakenCALISHER, CHARLES H.2000

West Nile Virus in the New World: Appearance, Persistence, and Adaptation to a New Econiche—An Opportunity Taken

Keywords

No keywords available

Abstract

No abstract available

Authors

CALISHER, CHARLES H.

Year Published

2000

Publication

Viral Immunology

Locations
    DOI

    10.1089/vim.2000.13.411

    Recent Articles

    Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

    by Hartley, D. M., Barker, C. M., Le Menach, A., Niu, T., Gaff, H. D. and Reisen, W. K.

    Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive rati...

    published 2012 in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

    Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval culex (diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

    by Gardner, Allison M., Hamer, Gabriel L., Hines, Alicia M., Newman, Christina M., Walker, Edward D. and Ruiz, Marilyn O.

    Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of la...

    published 2012 in Journal of Medical Entomology


    Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

    by Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

    Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases ...

    published 2012 in Zoonoses and Public Health

    Completeness of West Nile Virus Testing in Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis During an Outbreak in Arizona, Usa

    by WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

    Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were te...

    published 2012 in Epidemiology and Infection