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United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Emergence of Culex pipiens from Overwintering HibernaculaCiota, Alexander T.2011

Emergence of Culex pipiens from Overwintering Hibernacula

Keywords

Culex pipiens, overwintering, mark–recapture, West Nile virus, WNV

Abstract

Overwintering populations of Culex pipiens, the principal enzootic vector of West Nile virus in the northeastern USA, were studied over 3 consecutive winters from 2006 to 2008, using mark–recapture techniques to determine when Cx. pipiens females began to disperse from overwintering hibernacula and how their survival influenced early season populations. In February of each year, Cx. pipiens were aspirated and marked using fluorescent powder; 4,067, 752, and 3,070 diapausing Cx. pipiens were marked in each successive year. Mosquitoes were then trapped from mid-April to early May of each year using 19 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and 16 CDC gravid traps. A total of 348, 39, and 111 Culex mosquitoes were captured in the spring of 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. The number of mosquitoes marked in overwintering habitats is generally positively correlated with the number of mosquitoes recaptured in the early spring (linear regression, R2  =  0.79, P  =  0.04), yet results also suggest that seasonal variations beyond overwintering population size are likely important in determining the success of emergent populations. A single marked Cx. pipiens was captured in both 2006 and 2008. In 2006, the mosquito was captured 0.5 km from its overwintering site while in 2008 the mosquito was captured 0.3 km from its overwintering site. In all study years, mosquitoes consistently began exiting overwintering hibernacula the 3rd week of April, yet evidence of earlier exodus was observed in 2007, when outside temperatures were significantly higher in preceding days and months.

Authors

Ciota, Alexander T., Drummond, Cori L., Drobnack, Jason, Ruby, Meghan A., Kramer, Laura D. and Ebel, Gregory D.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/8756-971X-27.1.21

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21476444

Molecular evolution of West Nile virus in a northern temperate region: Connecticut, USA 1999–2008ARMSTRONG, PHILIP M.2011

Molecular evolution of West Nile virus in a northern temperate region: Connecticut, USA 1999–2008

Keywords

Phylogeny; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus; West Nile virus; Molecular epidemiology; Viral evolution, WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) has become firmly established in northeastern US, reemerging every summer since its introduction into North America in 1999. To determine whether WNV overwinters locally or is reseeded annually, we examined the patterns of viral lineage persistence and replacement in Connecticut over 10 consecutive transmission seasons by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, we compared the full protein coding sequence among WNV isolates to search for evidence of convergent and adaptive evolution. Viruses sampled from Connecticut segregated into a number of well-supported subclades by year of isolation with few clades persisting ≥ 2 years. Similar viral strains were dispersed in different locations across the state and divergent strains appeared within a single location during a single transmission season, implying widespread movement and rapid colonization of virus. Numerous amino acid substitutions arose in the population but only one change, V → A at position 159 of the envelope protein, became permanently fixed. Several instances of parallel evolution were identified in independent lineages, including one amino acid change in the NS4A protein that appears to be positively selected. Our results suggest that annual reemergence of WNV is driven by both reintroduction and local-overwintering of virus. Despite ongoing evolution of WNV, most amino acid variants occurred at low frequencies and were transient in the virus population.

Authors

ARMSTRONG, PHILIP M., Vossbrinck, Charles R., Andreadis, Theodore G., Anderson, John F., Pesko, Kendra N., Newman, Ruchi M., Lennon, Niall J., Birren, Bruce W., Ebel, Gregory D. and Henn, Mathew R.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Virology

Locations
DOI

10.1016/j.virol.2011.06.006

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21723580

Geographic incidence of human West Nile virus in northern Virginia, USA, in relation to incidence in birds and variations in urban environmentLiu, Hua2011

Geographic incidence of human West Nile virus in northern Virginia, USA, in relation to incidence in birds and variations in urban environment

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Previous studies have analyzed the number and location of bird infections with human incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) as well as the effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on WNV propagation. However, such associations require more quantitative analyses. This study is intended to quantitatively analyze the relationship in eight counties/independent cities in the northern Virginia, based on an integrated analysis of spatially explicit information on precipitation, land cover, infrastructure, and demographic data using Geographical Information Systems, remote sensing, and statistics. Results show that bird infections in years 2002–2003 were closely associated with low to medium level of impervious surface with certain percentage of canopy and precipitation. Environmental and socioeconomic factors such as percentages of impervious surface, canopy, senior population (65 and older), old houses, bird risk areas, and low-income population were important indicators of human WNV risk in 2002. Limited impervious surface with some canopy provides suitable habitats for WNV transmission, where bird-feeding mosquitoes can forage for blood meals from nesting/roosting birds. Certain socioeconomic conditions such as old houses were linked with human infections by providing favorable environmental conditions, i.e., mature trees with abundant canopy and settled storm sewer systems. It should be noted that the current results may be biased toward urban environments, where dead birds were more likely found, and because the sampling efforts for the bird mortality were rather based on local residents' reports than a designed random sampling method. This geospatial study contributes toward better targeting of WNV prevention within the study area. It also provides an example of how geospatial methods and variables may be used in understanding the ecology of human WNV risk for other areas.

Authors

Liu, Hua, Weng, Qihao and Gaines, David

Year Published

2011

Publication

Science of The Total Environment

Locations
DOI

10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.012

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21802710

Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern USGong, Hongfei2011

Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

Authors

Gong, Hongfei, DeGaetano, Arthur T. and Harrington, Laura C.

Year Published

2011

Publication

International Journal of Biometeorology

Locations
DOI

10.1007/s00484-010-0354-9

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20821026

The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Subsetting on Culex tarsalis Abundance Models—a Design for Sensible Reduction of Vector SurveillanceBrown, Heidi E.2011

The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Subsetting on Culex tarsalis Abundance Models—a Design for Sensible Reduction of Vector Surveillance

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Early identification of increasing mosquito activity is critical to effective mosquito control, particularly when increasing host-seeking behavior may be associated with increased risk of mosquito-borne disease. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal abundance pattern of the West Nile Virus vector, Culex tarsalis, in Fort Collins, CO, using an autoregressive integrated moving average model. We determined that an autoregressive model order 5 with lagged minimum temperatures was best at describing the seasonal abundance of Cx. tarsalis. We then tested the effect of using both temporal and spatial subsets of the data to determine the effect of reduced sampling effort on abundance predictions. We found that, if reduced trapping is necessary due to limited resources, removal of the least productive 1/3 or 1/4 of the traps produced the least erroneous predictions of seasonality represented in the observed data. We show that this productivity-based subset scheme performs better than other sampling effort reductions in generating the best estimate of Cx. tarsalis abundance per trap-night.

Authors

Brown, Heidi E., Doyle, Michael S., Cox, Jonathan, Eisen, Rebecca J. and Nasci, Roger S.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/10-6077.1

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21805843

Using a neural network for mining interpretable relationships of West Nile risk factorsGhosh, Debarchana2011

Using a neural network for mining interpretable relationships of West Nile risk factors

Keywords

West Nile virus; Risk factors; Nonlinear; Neural network; Urban morphology; USA, WNV

Abstract

The West Nile Virus (WNV) is an infectious disease spreading rapidly throughout the United States, causing illness among thousands of birds, animals, and humans. Yet, we only have a rudimentary understanding of how the mosquito-borne virus operates in complex avian–human environmental systems. The four broad categories of risk factors underlying WNV incidences are: environmental (temperature, precipitation, wetlands), socioeconomic (housing age), built-environment (catch basins, ditches), and existing mosquito abatement policies. This research first built a model incorporating the non-linear relationship between WNV incidences and hypothesized risk factors and second, identified important factor(s) whose management would result in effective disease prevention and containment. The research was conducted in the Metropolitan area of Minnesota, which had experienced significant WNV outbreaks from 2002. Computational neural network (CNN) modeling was used to understand the occurrence of WNV infected dead birds because of their ability to capture complex relationships with higher accuracy than linear models. Further a detailed interpretation technique, based on weights and biases of the network, provided a means for extracting relationships between risk factors and disease occurrence. Five risk factors: proximity to bogs, lakes, temperature, housing age, and developed medium density land cover class, were selected by the model. The detailed interpretation indicated that temperature, age of houses, and developed medium density land cover were positively related, and distance to bogs and lakes were negatively related to the incidence of WNV. This paper provides both applied and methodological contributions to the field of health geography. The relationships between the risk factors and disease occurrence could contribute to vector control strategies such as targeted insecticide spraying near bogs and lakes, mosquito control treatments for older houses, and extensive mapping, inspection, and treatments of catch basins. The proposed interpretation technique expanded the role of CNN models in health sciences as both predictive and explanatory tools.

Authors

Ghosh, Debarchana and Guha, Rajarshi

Year Published

2011

Publication

Social Science & Medicine

Locations
DOI

10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.014

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20950908

Blood-Feeding Patterns of the Culex pipiens Complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, CaliforniaMontgomery, Matthew J.2011

Blood-Feeding Patterns of the Culex pipiens Complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California

Keywords

Culex pipiens, mosquito feeding, West Nile virus, WNV

Abstract

Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV.

Authors

Montgomery, Matthew J., Thiemann, Tara, Macedo, Paula, Brown, David A. and Scott, Thomas W.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/ME10067

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21485380

Abundance of West Nile virus mosquito vectors in relation to climate and landscape variablesDeichmeister, Jayne M.2011

Abundance of West Nile virus mosquito vectors in relation to climate and landscape variables

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

It is currently unclear if the potential for West Nile virus transmission by mosquito vectors in the eastern United States is related to landscape or climate factors or both. We compared abundance of vector species between urban and suburban neighborhoods of Henrico County, VA, in relation to the following factors: temperature, precipitation, canopy cover, building footprint, and proximity to drainage infrastructure. Mosquitoes were collected throughout the 2005, 2006, and 2007 seasons and tested for West Nile virus (WNV) in pools of 10-50. Test results of mosquito pools were compared to average site abundance from 37 sites in Henrico County, VA; abundance was then examined in relation to ecological variables. Urban infrastructure was positively correlated with the abundance of Culex pipiens L./Cx. restuans, and our findings implicate combined sewer overflow systems as large contributors to Culex vector populations. No measure of urbanization examined in our study was correlated with Aedes albopictus abundance. Our study showed that certain landscape variables identified using Geographic Information Systems are valuable for predicting primary WNV vector abundance in Virginia, and that temperature along with low precipitation are strong predictors of population growth. Our results support other regional studies that found WNV proliferates under drought conditions.

Authors

Deichmeister, Jayne M. and Telang, Aparna

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of Vector Ecology

Locations
DOI

10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00143.x

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21635644

The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoesSiptroth, Stephen M.2011

The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes

Keywords

Clean Water Act; Vector control district; Mosquito; Malaria; West Nile virus; California, WNV

Abstract

In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts’ application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements.

Authors

Siptroth, Stephen M. and Shanahan, Richard P.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Locations
DOI

10.1016/j.jegh.2011.06.001

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856372

Winter Biology of Wetland Mosquitoes at a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Transmission in Alabama, USABurkett-Cadena, Nathan D.2011

Winter Biology of Wetland Mosquitoes at a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Transmission in Alabama, USA

Keywords

overwintering, mosquito, winter emergence, eastern equine encephalitis, WNV

Abstract

At temperate latitudes, vectors and pathogens must possess biological mechanisms for coping with cold temperatures and surviving from one transmission season to the next. Mosquitoes that overwinter in the adult stage have been proposed as winter maintenance hosts for certain arboviruses. In the cases of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), discovery of infected overwintering females lends support to this hypothesis, but for other arboviruses, in particular Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, EEEV), overwintering of the virus in mosquito hosts as not been demonstrated. In the current study, we collected overwintering mosquitoes from a focus of EEEV transmission in the southeastern United States to determine whether mosquitoes serve as winter maintenance hosts for EEEV and to document overwintering biologies of suspected vectors. No virus was detected via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of >500 female mosquitoes collected during three winters. Investigation into the winter biologies indicated that Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Culex peccator Dyar & Knab, and Uranotaenia sapphirina (Osten Sacken) overwinter as females. Females of these species were collected from hollow trees and emergence traps placed over ground holes. Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora L., trees were preferred overwintering sites of culicine mosquitoes. Emergence from underground overwintering sites peaked in mid-March, when air temperatures reached 18–22°C, and the first bloodengorged females of Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator were collected during this same period. Blood-fed Culex territans Walker females were collected as early as mid-February. This work provides insight into the overwintering biologies of suspected virus vectors at a site of active EEEV transmission and provides limited evidence against the hypothesis that EEEV persists through intertransmission periods in overwintering mosquitoes.

Authors

Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D., White, Gregory S., Eubanks, Micky D. and UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/ME10265

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21936314

Recent Articles

Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

by Hartley, D. M., Barker, C. M., Le Menach, A., Niu, T., Gaff, H. D. and Reisen, W. K.

Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive rati...

published 2012 in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval culex (diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

by Gardner, Allison M., Hamer, Gabriel L., Hines, Alicia M., Newman, Christina M., Walker, Edward D. and Ruiz, Marilyn O.

Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of la...

published 2012 in Journal of Medical Entomology


Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

by Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases ...

published 2012 in Zoonoses and Public Health

Completeness of West Nile Virus Testing in Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis During an Outbreak in Arizona, Usa

by WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were te...

published 2012 in Epidemiology and Infection