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United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Importance of Vertical and Horizontal Transmission of West Nile Virus by Culex pipiens in the Northeastern United States Anderson, John F.2006

Importance of Vertical and Horizontal Transmission of West Nile Virus by Culex pipiens in the Northeastern United States

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) has become established in the northeastern United States, where mosquitoes are inactive during winter. There have been no documented studies to explain how this virus survives winter and reinitiates infection in spring. We report that WNV was vertically transmitted to 2 F1 female Culex pipiens from a naturally infected female collected in Stratford, Connecticut. One vertically infected F1 female, which was 168 days old, fed on a hamster that died 8 days later of West Nile disease. This suggests that WNV survives winter in unfed, vertically infected C. pipiens with amplification initiated in spring by horizontal transmission

Authors

Anderson, John F. and Main, Andy J.

Year Published

2006

Publication

The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1086/508754

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17083043

Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat Patrican, Lisa A.2007

Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Mosquito feeding patterns identify vertebrate species potentially involved in the amplification of West Nile virus. In New York, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) were the predominant hosts in most habitats. Crow (Corvus sp.) blood meals were most frequently identified from sewage treatment plant and storm water catch basin habitats.

Authors

UNNASCH, THOMAS R., Patrican, Lisa A., Hackett, Laura E., McGowan, Jay W. and Lee, Joon-Hak

Year Published

2007

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid1312.070275

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18258048

Fatal Encephalitis and Myocarditis in Young Domestic Geese ( Anser anser domesticus ) Caused by West Nile Virus Swayne, David E.2001

Fatal Encephalitis and Myocarditis in Young Domestic Geese ( Anser anser domesticus ) Caused by West Nile Virus

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

During 1999 and 2000, a disease outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus occurred in humans, horses, and wild and zoological birds in the northeastern USA. In our experiments, WN virus infection of young domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) caused depression, weight loss, torticollis, opisthotonus, and death with accompanying encephalitis and myocarditis. Based on this experimental study and a field outbreak in Israel, WN virus is a disease threat to young goslings and viremia levels are potentially sufficient to infect mosquitoes and transmit WN virus to other animal species.

Authors

Swayne, David E., Beck, Joan R., Smith, Calandra S., Shieh, Wun-Ju and Zaki, Sharif R.

Year Published

2001

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid0704.010429

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11585545

Efficacy of Resmethrin Aerosols Applied from the Road for Suppressing Culex Vectors of West Nile Virus Reddy, Michael R.2006

Efficacy of Resmethrin Aerosols Applied from the Road for Suppressing Culex Vectors of West Nile Virus

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

We determined whether aerosol applications of resmethrin, delivered from the road, suppress the reproductive activity of Culex pipiens pipiens and Cx. restuans mosquitoes in suburban sites located near Boston. Oviposition implies a prior blood-feeding event and hence a potential West Nile virus (WNV) transmission-related event. Droplet size, rate of delivery and meteorological conditions were monitored. The target populations proved to be fully susceptible to the insecticide that was used. The roads in the test sites generally gave adequate opportunity for insecticidal coverage. We found that the aerosol plume may have failed to contact the target mosquitoes and conclude that such insecticidal aerosols, delivered from the road, may not effectively reduce the force of transmission of WNV in our test sites.

Authors

Reddy, Michael R., Spielman, Andrew, Lepore, Timothy J., Henley, David, Kiszewski, Anthony E. and Reiter, Paul

Year Published

2006

Publication

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1089/vbz.2006.6.117

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16796509

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TWO MOSQUITO POPULATIONS AND WEST NILE VIRUS IN HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS, 2003–06 1 DENNETT, JAMES A.2007

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TWO MOSQUITO POPULATIONS AND WEST NILE VIRUS IN HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS, 2003–06 1

Keywords

West Nile virus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, gravid trap, minimum infection rate, Cyanocitta cristata, blue jay, blood meal analysis, WNV

Abstract

Associations between Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and West Nile virus (WNV) activity, temperature, and rainfall in Harris County, Texas 2003–06 are discussed. Human cases were highly correlated to Cx. quinquefasciatus (r = 0.87) and Ae. albopictus (r = 0.78) pools, blue jays (r = 0.83), and Ae. albopictus collected (r = 0.71), but not Cx. quinquefasciatus collected (r = 0.45). Human cases were associated with temperature (r = 0.71), not rainfall (r = 0.29), whereas temperature correlated with Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively) and Cx. quinquefasciatus pools (r = 0.75), but not Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.55). Both species (collections and pools) and blue jays were weakly correlated (r ≤ 0.41) with rainfall, but blue jays were better correlated with Cx. quinquefasciatus pools (r = 0.87), compared with Ae. albopictus pools (r = 0.67), Ae. albopictus collections (r = 0.69), and Cx. quinquefasciatus collections (r = 0.46). Peak minimum infection rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus (4.55), and Ae. albopictus (4.41) was in August with highest human cases (17.87), blue jays (55.58), and temperature (29.01°C). Between both species, blood meal analysis indicated 68.18% of Cx. quinquefasciatus mammalian hosts were dog, while 22.72% were human, whereas Ae. albopictus had higher human (44.44%) but fewer dog hosts (22.22%). Ten bird species were identified as hosts for Cx. quinquefasciatus, with northern cardinal and blue jay representing 26.66% and 20.00%, respectively. No bird feeding activity was observed in Ae. albopictus. The earliest and latest human blood meal occurred in May (Ae. albopictus) and November (Cx. quinquefasciatus); 66.66% of human host identifications between both species occurred in October–November, after the seasonal human case peak. Based upon our data, WNV activity in both mosquito species warrants further investigation of their individual roles in WNV ecology within this region.

Authors

Tesh, Robert B., Siirin, Marina, Randle, Yvonne, Guzman, Hilda, Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak, Bueno, Rudy, PARSONS, RAY E., DENNETT, JAMES A., BALA, ADILELKHIDIR, SARGENT, CHRISTOPHER B., HASSAN, HASSAN K., REYNA-NAVA, MARTIN and UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

Year Published

2007

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/8756-971X(2007)23[264:ABTMPA]2.0.CO;2

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17939505

Recent Articles

Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

by Hartley, D. M., Barker, C. M., Le Menach, A., Niu, T., Gaff, H. D. and Reisen, W. K.

Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive rati...

published 2012 in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval culex (diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

by Gardner, Allison M., Hamer, Gabriel L., Hines, Alicia M., Newman, Christina M., Walker, Edward D. and Ruiz, Marilyn O.

Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of la...

published 2012 in Journal of Medical Entomology


Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

by Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases ...

published 2012 in Zoonoses and Public Health

Completeness of West Nile Virus Testing in Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis During an Outbreak in Arizona, Usa

by WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were te...

published 2012 in Epidemiology and Infection