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United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Use of Scented Sugar Bait Stations to Track Mosquito-Borne Arbovirus Transmission in CaliforniaLothrop, Hugh D.2012

Use of Scented Sugar Bait Stations to Track Mosquito-Borne Arbovirus Transmission in California

Keywords

surveillance, West Nile virus, sugar feeding, bait station, Culex larsalis, WNV

Abstract

Laboratory and field research was conducted to determine if Culex tarsalis Coquillett expectorated West Nile virus (WNV) during sugar feeding and if a lure or bait station could be developed to exploit this behavior for WNV surveillance. Experimentally infected Cx. tarsalis repeatedly expectorated WNV onto filter paper strips and into vials with wicks containing sucrose that was readily detectable by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Few females (33%, n = 27) became infected by imbibing sugar solutions spiked with high concentrations (107 plaque forming units/ml) of WNV, indicating sugar feeding stations probably would not be a source of WNV infection. In nature, sugar bait stations scented with the floral attractant phenyl acetaldehyde tracked WNV transmission activity in desert but not urban or agricultural landscapes in California. When deployed in areas of the Coachella Valley with WNV activity during the summer of 2011, 27 of 400 weekly sugar samples (6.8%) tested positive for WNV RN A by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence of positives varied spatially, but positive sugar stations were detected before concurrent surveillance measures of infection (mosquito pools) or transmission (sentinel chicken seroconversions). In contrast, sugar bait stations deployed in urban settings in Los Angeles or agricultural habits near Bakersfield in Kern County supporting WNV activity produced 1 of 90 and 0 of 60 positive weekly sugar samples, respectively. These results with sugar bait stations will require additional research to enhance bait attractancy and to understand the relationship between positive sugar stations and standard metrics of arbovirus surveillance.

Authors

Lothrop, Hugh D., Wheeler, Sarah S., Fang, Ying and Reisen, William K.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/ME12117

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23270177

Urban Wet Environment as Mosquito Habitat in the Upper MidwestIrwin, Patrick2008

Urban Wet Environment as Mosquito Habitat in the Upper Midwest

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Sampling of Culex larval habitat plays an important role in West Nile virus surveillance and control programs. Although many cities have established mosquito sampling programs and abatement districts, there is relatively little information describing the extent and ecology of urban surface waters and stormwater systems in different geographic areas and how these parameters affect mosquito communities and control strategies. An aerial survey of the city of Madison, Wisconsin revealed 521 above-ground wet sites. These included both constructed stormwater systems (ditches, retention ponds, detention ponds) and natural wetlands (marshes, flood areas, creeks, and rivers). Repeat sampling of 351 of these sites was conducted during 2004 and 2005. The majority of sites, 58% in 2004 and 72% in 2005, yielded no mosquito larvae, suggesting that physical and biological features of these wet sites limit the development of mosquito larvae. For both years, analysis of the positive samples revealed that less than 25% of sites produced Culex spp. while a small number of ditches and detention ponds were consistent “superproducers” of Culex larvae from year to year. This information will facilitate comparisons across geographical areas and provides insight into local variation in the public health risk due to mosquito transmission of human disease agents.

Authors

Irwin, Patrick, Arcari, Christine, Hausbeck, John and Paskewitz, Susan

Year Published

2008

Publication

EcoHealth

Locations
DOI

10.1007/s10393-007-0152-y

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18648797

URBAN HABITAT EVALUATION FOR WEST NILE VIRUS SURVEILLANCE IN MOSQUITOES IN ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICODiMenna, Mark A.2007

URBAN HABITAT EVALUATION FOR WEST NILE VIRUS SURVEILLANCE IN MOSQUITOES IN ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO

Keywords

Albuquerque, New Mexico, mosquitoes, West Nile virus, surveillance, WNV

Abstract

As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area.

Authors

Parmenter, Robert R., DiMenna, Mark A., Bueno, Rudy, Norris, Douglas E., Sheyka, Jeff M., Molina, Josephine L., LaBeau, Elisa M., Hatton, Elizabeth S., Glass, Gregory E. and ROBERTS, CHRISTINE M.

Year Published

2007

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/8756-971X(2007)23[153:UHEFWN]2.0.CO;2

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17847847

The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activityGinsberg, Howard S.2010

The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

Keywords

Aedes;Culex;surveillance;West Nile virus, WNV

Abstract

Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

Authors

Ginsberg, Howard S., Rochlin, Ilia and Campbell, Scott R.

Year Published

2010

Publication

Journal of Vector Ecology

Locations
DOI

10.1111/j.1948-7134.2010.00055.x

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20618645

The Role of Hydrogeography and Climate in the Landscape Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in New York State from 2000 to 2010Walsh, Michael G.2012

The Role of Hydrogeography and Climate in the Landscape Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in New York State from 2000 to 2010

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

The epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus (WNV) have not yet been completely described. In particular, the specific roles of climate and water in the landscape in the occurrence of human WNV cases remain unknown. This study used Poisson regression to describe the relationships between WNV cases and temperature, precipitation, and the hydrogeography of the landscape in New York State from 2000 to 2010. Fully adjusted models showed that hydrogeographic area was significantly inversely associated with WNV cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.99; 95% C.I. = 0.98-0.997< p = 0.04), such that each one square kilometer increase in hydrogeographic area was associated with a 1% decrease in WNV incidence. This association was independent of both temperature, which was also associated with WNV incidence (IRR = 2.06; 95% C.I. = 1.84-2.31, ps express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Authors

Walsh, Michael G.

Year Published

2012

Publication

PLOS One

Locations
DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0030620

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22328919

The Impact of Adulticide Applications on Mosquito Density in Chicago, 2005Mutebi, John-Paul2011

The Impact of Adulticide Applications on Mosquito Density in Chicago, 2005

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

The city of Chicago used ground ultra-low volume treatments of sumithrin (ANVIL 10+10) in areas with high West Nile virus infection rates among Culex mosquitoes. Two sequential treatments in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports wk 31 and 32 decreased mean mosquito density by 54% from 2.5 to 1.1 mosquitoes per trap-day, whereas mosquito density increased by 153% from 1.3 to 3.3 mosquitoes per trap-day at the nonsprayed sites. The difference between these changes in mosquito density was statistically significant (confidence intervals for the difference in change: -4.7 to -1.9). Sequential adulticide treatments in September (wk 34 and 35) had no effect on mosquito density, probably because it was late in the season and the mosquitoes were presumably entering diapause and less active. Overall, there was significant decrease in mosquito density at the trap sites treated in all 4 wk (wk 31, 32, 34, and 35), suggesting that sustained sequential treatments suppressed mosquito density. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) of infection rate estimates varied independently of adulticide treatments, suggesting that the adulticide treatments had no direct effect on MLE. Mosquito trap counts were low, which was probably due to large numbers of alternative oviposition sites, especially catch basins competing with the gravid traps.

Authors

Mutebi, John-Paul, Delorey, Mark J., Jones, Roderick C., Plate, David K., Gerber, Susan I., Gibbs, Kevin P., Sun, Gouhe, Cohen, Nicole J. and Paul, William S.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/10-6045.1

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21476450

The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoesSiptroth, Stephen M.2011

The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes

Keywords

Clean Water Act; Vector control district; Mosquito; Malaria; West Nile virus; California, WNV

Abstract

In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts’ application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements.

Authors

Siptroth, Stephen M. and Shanahan, Richard P.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Locations
DOI

10.1016/j.jegh.2011.06.001

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856372

The Effects of West Nile Virus on the Reproductive Success and Overwinter Survival of Eastern Bluebirds in AlabamaHill, Geoffrey E.2010

The Effects of West Nile Virus on the Reproductive Success and Overwinter Survival of Eastern Bluebirds in Alabama

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

We tested for negative effects of West Nile virus (WNV) on a breeding population of eastern bluebirds in Alabama by comparing fecundity and reproductive success in years before and after the arrival of WNV and by comparing fecundity, reproductive success, and overwinter survival of seropositive and seronegative individuals within the same population in the same years. We found that female bluebirds were more likely to be seropositive than male bluebirds. Age and individual condition did not affect likelihood of being seropositive. Being seropositive for WNV was not associated with any negative effects on reproduction or survival. However, female fecundity was higher in years after WNV compared to years before the arrival of WNV. The reproductive success of males who tested positive for WNV exposure was higher than that of males that were seronegative. Overall, we found no negative effects on reproduction or survival after exposure to WNV.

Authors

Hill, Geoffrey E., Siefferman, Lynn, Liu, Mark, Hassan, Hassan and UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

Year Published

2010

Publication

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.1089/vbz.2008.0211

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589058

The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Subsetting on Culex tarsalis Abundance Models—a Design for Sensible Reduction of Vector SurveillanceBrown, Heidi E.2011

The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Subsetting on Culex tarsalis Abundance Models—a Design for Sensible Reduction of Vector Surveillance

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Early identification of increasing mosquito activity is critical to effective mosquito control, particularly when increasing host-seeking behavior may be associated with increased risk of mosquito-borne disease. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal abundance pattern of the West Nile Virus vector, Culex tarsalis, in Fort Collins, CO, using an autoregressive integrated moving average model. We determined that an autoregressive model order 5 with lagged minimum temperatures was best at describing the seasonal abundance of Cx. tarsalis. We then tested the effect of using both temporal and spatial subsets of the data to determine the effect of reduced sampling effort on abundance predictions. We found that, if reduced trapping is necessary due to limited resources, removal of the least productive 1/3 or 1/4 of the traps produced the least erroneous predictions of seasonality represented in the observed data. We show that this productivity-based subset scheme performs better than other sampling effort reductions in generating the best estimate of Cx. tarsalis abundance per trap-night.

Authors

Brown, Heidi E., Doyle, Michael S., Cox, Jonathan, Eisen, Rebecca J. and Nasci, Roger S.

Year Published

2011

Publication

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

Locations
DOI

10.2987/10-6077.1

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21805843

Test of Recrudescence Hypothesis for Overwintering of West Nile Virus in Gray CatbirdsOwen, J. C.2010

Test of Recrudescence Hypothesis for Overwintering of West Nile Virus in Gray Catbirds

Keywords

West Nile virus, overwintering, Dumetella carolinensis, testosterone, migration, WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus is a pathogen of concern for both human and wildlife health, Although many aspects of the ecology of West Nile virus are well understood, the mechanisms by which this and similar mosquito-borne viruses overwinter and become reinitiated each spring in temperate regions is not known. A thorough understanding of this mechanism is crucial to risk assessment and development of control strategies. One of the hypotheses to explain the mechanism by which this virus persists from year to year is the spring recrudescence of latent virus in avian reservoir hosts. Stress-related immunosuppression is implicated in the recrudescence of latent viruses in birds. We tested the spring recrudescence hypothesis in a controlled laboratory experiment using hatching-year gray catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis) captured in northern Ohio (July–August 2006), Catbirds (n = 60) were experimentally infected (September 2006) and later examined for the effects of immuno-suppression through exogenous hormones and artificially induced migratory disposition, We found no effect of either testosterone or migratory behavior on infection status in any of the treatment birds. Moreover, we detected no viral RNA in the kidney, spleen, brain, or liver upon necropsy at 24 wk postinfection.

Authors

Owen, J. C., Moore, F. R., Williams, A. J., Ward, M. P., Beveroth, T. A., Miller, E. A., Wilson, L. C., Morley, V. J., Abbey-Lee, R. N., Veeneman, B. A., Derussy, B. M., McWhorter, M. S. and Garvin, M. C.

Year Published

2010

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/ME09035

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20496593

Recent Articles

Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

by Hartley, D. M., Barker, C. M., Le Menach, A., Niu, T., Gaff, H. D. and Reisen, W. K.

Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive rati...

published 2012 in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval culex (diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

by Gardner, Allison M., Hamer, Gabriel L., Hines, Alicia M., Newman, Christina M., Walker, Edward D. and Ruiz, Marilyn O.

Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of la...

published 2012 in Journal of Medical Entomology


Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

by Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases ...

published 2012 in Zoonoses and Public Health

Completeness of West Nile Virus Testing in Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis During an Outbreak in Arizona, Usa

by WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were te...

published 2012 in Epidemiology and Infection