Small

United States Articles found through PubMed 2000-2012

Description

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can infect humans. Originally known in East Africa, WNV has now spread throughout the world. The first case of WNV in the western hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999, and within 5 years the disease had spread throughout the United States and into Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While most of WNV infections cause no symptoms, the remaining cases show flu-like symptoms, and can lead to neurological disease or death.

latest article added on November 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, IllinoisHamer, S. A.2012

Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

Keywords

wild birds, urbanization, Salmonella, Borrelia burgdorferi, West Nile virus, Zoonoses, WNV

Abstract

Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases caused by three types of zoonotic pathogens: Salmonella pathogens, mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) and tick-borne pathogens, including the agents of Lyme disease and human anaplasmosis. Wild birds were captured using mist nets at five sites throughout greater Chicago, Illinois, and blood, faecal and ectoparasite samples were collected for diagnostic testing. A total of 289 birds were captured across all sites. A total of 2.8% of birds harboured Ixodes scapularis– the blacklegged tick – of which 54.5% were infected with the agent of Lyme disease, and none were infected with the agent of human anaplasmosis. All infested birds were from a single site that was relatively less urban. A single bird, captured at the only field site in which supplemental bird feeding was practised within the mist netting zone, was infected with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. While no birds harboured WNV in their blood, 3.5% of birds were seropositive, and birds from more urban sites had higher exposure to the virus than those from less urban sites. Our results demonstrate the presence of multiple bird-borne zoonotic pathogens across a gradient of urbanization and provide an assessment of potential public health risks to the high-density human populations within the area.

Authors

Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Zoonoses and Public Health

Locations
DOI

10.1111/j.1863-2378.2012.01462.x

Completeness of West Nile virus testing in patients with meningitis and encephalitis during an outbreak in Arizona, USAWEBER, I. B.2012

Completeness of West Nile virus testing in patients with meningitis and encephalitis during an outbreak in Arizona, USA

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were tested for WNV. Only 12 (28%) of 43 patients aged <0·01). Patients with clinical signs of weakness or paralysis, elevated CSF protein, admitted to an inpatient facility, or discharged to a rehabilitation facility were also more likely to have WNV testing performed. The lack of testing in younger age groups and in those with less severe disease probably resulted in substantial underestimates of WNV neuroinvasive disease burden.

Authors

WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Epidemiology and Infection

Locations
DOI

10.1017/S0950268811002494

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123531

Proximity of Residence to Bodies of Water and Risk for West Nile Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study in Houston, TexasNolan, Melissa S.2012

Proximity of Residence to Bodies of Water and Risk for West Nile Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study in Houston, Texas

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne virus, has clinically affected hundreds of residents in the Houston metropolitan area since its introduction in 2002. This study aimed to determine if living within close proximity to a water source increases one's odds of infection with WNV. We identified 356 eligible WNV-positive cases and 356 controls using a population proportionate to size model with US Census Bureau data. We found that living near slow moving water sources was statistically associated with increased odds for human infection, while living near moderate moving water systems was associated with decreased odds for human infection. Living near bayous lined with vegetation as opposed to concrete also showed increased risk of infection. The habitats of slow moving and vegetation lined water sources appear to favor the mosquito-human transmission cycle. These methods can be used by resource-limited health entities to identify high-risk areas for arboviral disease surveillance and efficient mosquito management initiatives.

Authors

Nolan, Melissa S., Zangeneh, Ana, Khuwaja, Salma A., Martinez, Diana, Rossmann, Susan N., Cardenas, Victor and Murray, Kristy O.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

Locations
DOI

10.1155/2012/159578

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315511

Comparison of Enzootic Risk Measures for Predicting West Nile Disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004–2010Kwan, Jennifer L.2012

Comparison of Enzootic Risk Measures for Predicting West Nile Disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004–2010

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

In Los Angeles, California, USA, 2 epidemics of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have occurred since WNV was recognized in 2003. To assess which measure of risk was most predictive of human cases, we compared 3 measures: the California Mosquito-Borne Virus Surveillance and Response Plan Assessment, the vector index, and the Dynamic Continuous-Area Space-Time system. A case– crossover study was performed by using symptom onset dates from 384 persons with WNV infection to determine their relative environmental exposure to high-risk conditions as measured by each method. Receiver-operating characteristic plots determined thresholds for each model, and the area under the curve was used to compare methods. We found that the best risk assessment model for human WNV cases included surveillance data from avian, mosquito, and climate sources.

Authors

Kwan, Jennifer L., Park, Bborie K., Carpenter, Tim E., Ngo, Van, Civen, Rachel and Reisen, William K.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Locations
DOI

10.3201/eid1808.111558

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22840314

Entomologic Investigations during an Outbreak of West Nile Virus Disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010Godsey, M. S.2012

Entomologic Investigations during an Outbreak of West Nile Virus Disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31-August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39 engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus had fed on birds, 8 of 39 on humans, and 1 of 39 on a lizard. At control sites, 20 of 20 identified blood meals were from birds. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary enzootic and epidemic vector of this outbreak. The most important parameters in the outbreak were vector abundance and blood meal analysis, which suggested more frequent contact between Cx. quinquefasciatus and human hosts in the outbreak area compared with the control area.

Authors

Godsey, M. S., Burkhalter, K., Young, G., Delorey, M., Smith, K., Townsend, J., LEVY, C. and Mutebi, J.-P.

Year Published

2012

Publication

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Locations
DOI

10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0700

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109372

West Nile virus infection in blood donors in the New York City area during the 2010 seasonal epidemicFrancis, Richard O.2012

West Nile virus infection in blood donors in the New York City area during the 2010 seasonal epidemic

Keywords

Immunoglobulin G, Humans, Epidemics: statistics & numerical data, Epidemics, Culicidae: virology, Culicidae, Blood Safety: statistics & numerical data, Blood Safety, Blood Donors: statistics & numerical data, Blood Donors, Antibodies, Viral: blood, Antibodies, Viral, Animals, Algorithms, Adult, West Nile virus: isolation & purification, West Nile virus: immunology, West Nile virus, West Nile Fever: epidemiology, West Nile Fever: blood, West Nile Fever, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Seasons, Retrospective Studies, Public Health: statistics & numerical data, Public Health, New York City: epidemiology, New York City, New Jersey: epidemiology, New Jersey, Incidence, Immunoglobulin M: blood, Immunoglobulin M, Immunoglobulin G: blood

Abstract

A uniform threshold strategy for converting from minipool (MP)-nucleic acid testing (NAT) to individual donation (ID)-NAT screening for acute West Nile virus (WNV) infection among blood donors is lacking. We report on WNV screening at the New York Blood Center during the 2010 seasonal WNV epidemic, the most severe epidemic in that state since the original outbreak in 1999.

Authors

Francis, Richard O., Strauss, Donna, Williams, Joan Dunn, Whaley, Shavonne and Shaz, Beth H.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Transfusion

Locations
DOI

10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03639.x

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22486471

The Role of Hydrogeography and Climate in the Landscape Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in New York State from 2000 to 2010Walsh, Michael G.2012

The Role of Hydrogeography and Climate in the Landscape Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in New York State from 2000 to 2010

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

The epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus (WNV) have not yet been completely described. In particular, the specific roles of climate and water in the landscape in the occurrence of human WNV cases remain unknown. This study used Poisson regression to describe the relationships between WNV cases and temperature, precipitation, and the hydrogeography of the landscape in New York State from 2000 to 2010. Fully adjusted models showed that hydrogeographic area was significantly inversely associated with WNV cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.99; 95% C.I. = 0.98-0.997< p = 0.04), such that each one square kilometer increase in hydrogeographic area was associated with a 1% decrease in WNV incidence. This association was independent of both temperature, which was also associated with WNV incidence (IRR = 2.06; 95% C.I. = 1.84-2.31, ps express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Authors

Walsh, Michael G.

Year Published

2012

Publication

PLOS One

Locations
DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0030620

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22328919

Fine scale spatial urban land cover factors associated with adult mosquito abundance and risk in Tucson, ArizonaLandau, Katheryn I.2012

Fine scale spatial urban land cover factors associated with adult mosquito abundance and risk in Tucson, Arizona

Keywords

Seasons, Aedes: physiology, Animals, Arizona, Culex, Aedes, Culex: physiology, Culicidae, Culicidae: physiology

Abstract

It is currently unclear what role microhabitat land cover plays in determining the seasonal spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, disease vectors of dengue and West Nile Virus, respectively, in Tucson, AZ. We compared mosquito abundance to sixteen land cover variables derived from 2010 NAIP multispectral data and 2008 LiDAR height data. Mosquitoes were trapped with 30-9 traps from May to October of 2010 and 2011. Variables were extracted for five buffer zones (10-50 m radii at 10 m intervals) around trapping sites. Stepwise regression was performed to determine the best scale for observation and the influential land cover variables. The 30 m radius buffer was determined to be the best for observing the land cover-mosquito abundance relationship. Ae. aegypti presence was positively associated with structure and medium height trees and negatively associated with bare earth; Cx. quinquefasciatus presence was positively associated with pavement and medium height trees and negatively associated with shrubs. These findings emphasize vegetation, impervious surfaces, and soil influences on mosquito presence in an urban setting. Lastly, the land cover-mosquito abundance relationships were used to produce risk maps of seasonal presence that highlight high risk areas in Tucson, which may be useful for focusing mosquito control program actions.

Authors

Landau, Katheryn I. and van Leeuwen, Willem J.D.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Journal of Vector Ecology

Locations
DOI

10.1111/j.1948-7134.2012.00245.x

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23181866

Use of Scented Sugar Bait Stations to Track Mosquito-Borne Arbovirus Transmission in CaliforniaLothrop, Hugh D.2012

Use of Scented Sugar Bait Stations to Track Mosquito-Borne Arbovirus Transmission in California

Keywords

surveillance, West Nile virus, sugar feeding, bait station, Culex larsalis, WNV

Abstract

Laboratory and field research was conducted to determine if Culex tarsalis Coquillett expectorated West Nile virus (WNV) during sugar feeding and if a lure or bait station could be developed to exploit this behavior for WNV surveillance. Experimentally infected Cx. tarsalis repeatedly expectorated WNV onto filter paper strips and into vials with wicks containing sucrose that was readily detectable by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Few females (33%, n = 27) became infected by imbibing sugar solutions spiked with high concentrations (107 plaque forming units/ml) of WNV, indicating sugar feeding stations probably would not be a source of WNV infection. In nature, sugar bait stations scented with the floral attractant phenyl acetaldehyde tracked WNV transmission activity in desert but not urban or agricultural landscapes in California. When deployed in areas of the Coachella Valley with WNV activity during the summer of 2011, 27 of 400 weekly sugar samples (6.8%) tested positive for WNV RN A by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence of positives varied spatially, but positive sugar stations were detected before concurrent surveillance measures of infection (mosquito pools) or transmission (sentinel chicken seroconversions). In contrast, sugar bait stations deployed in urban settings in Los Angeles or agricultural habits near Bakersfield in Kern County supporting WNV activity produced 1 of 90 and 0 of 60 positive weekly sugar samples, respectively. These results with sugar bait stations will require additional research to enhance bait attractancy and to understand the relationship between positive sugar stations and standard metrics of arbovirus surveillance.

Authors

Lothrop, Hugh D., Wheeler, Sarah S., Fang, Ying and Reisen, William K.

Year Published

2012

Publication

Journal of Medical Entomology

Locations
DOI

10.1603/ME12117

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23270177

Landscape-Level Spatial Patterns of West Nile Virus Risk in the Northern Great PlainsChuang, T.-W.2012

Landscape-Level Spatial Patterns of West Nile Virus Risk in the Northern Great Plains

Keywords

WNV

Abstract

Understanding the landscape-level determinants of West Nile virus (WNV) can aid in mapping high-risk areas and enhance disease control and prevention efforts. This study analyzed the spatial patterns of human WNV cases in three areas in South Dakota during 2003–2007 and investigated the influences of land cover, hydrology, soils, irrigation, and elevation by using case–control models. Land cover, hydrology, soils, and elevation all influenced WNV risk, although the main drivers were different in each study area. Risk for WNV was generally higher in areas with rural land cover than in developed areas, and higher close to wetlands or soils with a high ponding frequency. In western South Dakota, WNV risk also decreased with increasing elevation and was higher in forested areas. Our results showed that the spatial patterns of human WNV risk were associated with landscape-level features that likely reflect variability in mosquito ecology, avian host communities, and human activity.

Authors

Chuang, T.-W., Hockett, C. W., Kightlinger, L. and Wimberly, M. C.

Year Published

2012

Publication

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Locations
DOI

10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0515

Additional Information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492161

Recent Articles

Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

by Hartley, D. M., Barker, C. M., Le Menach, A., Niu, T., Gaff, H. D. and Reisen, W. K.

Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive rati...

published 2012 in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Weather Variability Affects Abundance of Larval culex (diptera: Culicidae) in Storm Water Catch Basins in Suburban Chicago

by Gardner, Allison M., Hamer, Gabriel L., Hines, Alicia M., Newman, Christina M., Walker, Edward D. and Ruiz, Marilyn O.

Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex restuans Theobald are the primary enzootic and bridge vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States north of 36° latitude. Recent studies of the natural history of these species have implicated catch basins and underground storm drain systems as important larval development sites in urban and suburban locales. Although the presence of la...

published 2012 in Journal of Medical Entomology


Wild Birds as Sentinels for Multiple Zoonotic Pathogens Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Greater Chicago, Illinois

by Hamer, S. A., Lehrer, E. and Magle, S. B.

Wild birds are important in the maintenance and transmission of many zoonotic pathogens. With increasing urbanization and the resulting emergence of zoonotic diseases, it is critical to understand the relationships among birds, vectors, zoonotic pathogens, and the urban landscape. Here, we use wild birds as sentinels across a gradient of urbanization to understand the relative risk of diseases ...

published 2012 in Zoonoses and Public Health

Completeness of West Nile Virus Testing in Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis During an Outbreak in Arizona, Usa

by WEBER, I. B., LINDSEY, N. P., BUNKO-PATTERSON, A. M., BRIGGS, G., WADLEIGH, T. J., SYLVESTER, T. L., LEVY, C., KOMATSU, K. K., LEHMAN, J. A., FISCHER, M. and STAPLES, J. E.

Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were te...

published 2012 in Epidemiology and Infection