Small

Articles published from 1984-2014.

Description

Publishes original articles and commentaries on research in the fields of fundamental and applied soil and plant science. Original research papers, short communications including germplasm registrations, relevant book reviews, commentaries on papers recently published and, exceptionally, review articles will be considered for publication in the Journal. Manuscripts considered will address aspects of: Agronomical and Horticultural research including breeding and genetics, cultivar evaluation, management, nutrition, physiology, production, and quality; Soil Science research including biology, chemistry, classification, fertility, mineralogy, pedology and hydropedology, physics, and soil and land evaluation of agricultural and urban ecosystems; Weed Science research including biological control agents, biology, ecology, genetics, herbicide resistance and herbicide-resistant crops, and physiology and molecular action of herbicides and plant growth regulators; Agro-climatology; Agro-ecology; Forage, Pasture and Turfgrass science including production and utilisation; Plant and Soil Systems Modelling; Plant–Microbe Interactions; Plant–Pest Interactions; and Plant–Soil Relationships.

latest article added on October 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Effect of simulated acid rain and sulphur nutrition on the growth, sulphate and cation content of Bromus diandrus Roth.Phillips, G. M.1985

Effect of simulated acid rain and sulphur nutrition on the growth, sulphate and cation content of Bromus diandrus Roth.

Keywords

Acid rain, Bromus diandrus, sulphur nutrition

Abstract

Bromus diandrus seedlings were grown in sand culture under greenhouse conditions, using a two factor randomized block design. Two levels of sulphur nutrition (with and without) and three acid rain treatments were applied. The plants were harvested 45 days after the start of the simulated acid rain treatments, and analysed for sulphate and cations. Sulphur deficiency significantly reduced the growth of the plants but simulated acid rain did not. Sulphur deficient plants had significantly more magnesium in the shoots and less in the roots, suggesting redistribution of the magnesium. Root potassium content was significantly higher in sulphur deficient plants, and lower in those plants receiving acid rain of pH 2,5. The results suggest that acid rain is not a stress factor where Bromus diandrus is concerned. S. Afr. J. Plant Soil 1985, 2: 98–100

Authors

Phillips, G. M., Raitt, L. M. and Aalbers, J.

Year Published

1985

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
    DOI

    10.1080/02571862.1985.10634145

    This article contributed by:

    Original

    Tolerance of South African maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars to atrazineLe Court De Billot, M. R.1985

    Tolerance of South African maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars to atrazine

    Keywords

    Atrazine, cultivar, phytotoxicity, Zea mays

    Abstract

    Sixty-seven maize cultivars were evaluated for tolerance to atrazine (4 p.p.m. v/v) in nutrient solution. Shoot dry masses (SDM) of only two cultivars, SAB149 and NPP x K64r, were reduced more than 40% and another 14 were reduced by more than 30%. CG4801, PNR432, SSM2043 and A280 were the most tolerant cultivars and showed no reduction in SDM with atrazine. Cultivars, reportedly injured in commercial maize production were not less tolerant than the other cultivars evaluated. The absence of phytotoxicity symptoms did not indicate tolerance. Cultivars TX14, A206 and SABI404 displayed very slight phytotoxic symptoms but had large reductions in SDM. In sand culture, the relative responses of 10 cultivars to atrazine (8 p.p.m. v/v) were compared under different temperature and nutrient conditions. HL1 and A477W were relatively more tolerant under the low temperature regime (20/10 °C) than under the high temperature regime (30/20 °C). The relative tolerances of CG4801, SSM2039 and SSM2045 remained the same at both temperature regimes. Relative tolerances of cultivars changed under good and poor nutrition. Only CG4801 was reasonably tolerant under both nutrient regimes. The relative tolerances of cultivars were not significantly different when atrazine was applied pre- or post-emergence. The results of this study do not explain the severe injury periodically reported from the field. S. Afr. J. Plant Soil 1985, 2: 101–106

    Authors

    Le Court De Billot, M. R. and Nel, P. C.

    Year Published

    1985

    Publication

    South African Journal of Plant and Soil

    Locations
      DOI

      10.1080/02571862.1985.10634146

      This article contributed by:

      Original

      Use of the microwave oven for drying herbage samples in the fieldDaines, T.1985

      Use of the microwave oven for drying herbage samples in the field

      Keywords

      Dry matter, herbage, microwave oven drying, quality

      Abstract

      Drying of herbage samples in the field using a microwave oven powered by a portable generator has saved time and eliminated the transporting of samples to other stations for handling. Microwave drying is compared to drying in conventional forced-air ovens and the influence of microwaves on chemical analysis of plant material is discussed.

      Authors

      Daines, T. and Ingpen, R. A.

      Year Published

      1985

      Publication

      South African Journal of Plant and Soil

      Locations
        DOI

        10.1080/02571862.1985.10634147

        This article contributed by:

        Original

        Aluminium uptake sites in the primary root of Zea mays L.Bennet, R. J.1985

        Aluminium uptake sites in the primary root of Zea mays L.

        Keywords

        Aluminium, cap, root, toxicity, uptake

        Abstract

        Histochemical studies of the chronological sequence involved in the uptake of Al by the primary root of Zea mays L., cv. TX 24, showed the primary sites of Al uptake to be the peripheral cells of the root cap and the mucilagenous secretions surrounding the root. Al spread rapidly through the cells of the root cap but the cap initials were the last cells to be reached. Entry of Al Into the rest of the root was considerably less rapid, and was found to be limited to the outer cortical cells of the root apex. Little evidence could be found of Al reaching actively dividing cell populations of the primary root meristem during the first 20 h of this experiment. The concept of Al acting directly on cell division is consequently questioned. Decapped root experiments implied a protective function for the root cap over the quiescent centre and mitotically active cells of the root. Epidermal cells of the root apex were not an effective barrier to Al. It is postulated that Al uptake is a function of the biochemical properties particularly the presence of acid mucopolysaccharides in the cells involved. S. Air. J. Plant Soil 1985, 2: 1–7

        Authors

        Bennet, R. J., Breen, C. M. and Fey, M. V.

        Year Published

        1985

        Publication

        South African Journal of Plant and Soil

        Locations
          DOI

          10.1080/02571862.1985.10634129

          This article contributed by:

          Original

          The primary site of aluminium injury in the root of Zea mays L.Bennet, R. J.1985

          The primary site of aluminium injury in the root of Zea mays L.

          Keywords

          Aluminium, dictyosomes, toxicity, transfer, vesicle

          Abstract

          Histoohemioal and ultrastructural studies of aluminium-induced changes in root metabolism and the structure of the cytoplasmic organelles of the root cap indicated that the first observable effect of aluminium involved the migration of secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus which was considered indicative of interference by Al in membrane transport. Al also resulted in a reduction in the number of cisternae per dictyosome, disruption of the membranes of the cisternae and secretory vesicles as well as alteration to the appearance of the product elaborated in the secretory vesicles. Changes in the frequency and appearance of the endoplasmic reticulum were also noted. Progressive vacuolation of the cells of Al-treated roots was observed. No alteration to the nuclear structure of the cap initials involving either the appearance of the nuclear membranes, or degree of chromatin condensation could be connected to Al injury during the first 20 h of exposure. Al was shown to affect the pattern and intensity of respiratory activity in the root apex. High levels of respiratory activity were detected in control treatments in cells proximal to the cap/root junction and approximating the location of the quiescent centre. Al treatment was found to have a rapid inhibitory effect on the metabolic activity of these cells. S. Air. J. Plant Soil 1985, 2: 8–17

          Authors

          Bennet, R. J., Breen, C. M. and Fey, M. V.

          Year Published

          1985

          Publication

          South African Journal of Plant and Soil

          Locations
            DOI

            10.1080/02571862.1985.10634130

            This article contributed by:

            Original

            Physical properties of some highveld VertisolsSnyman, K.1985

            Physical properties of some highveld Vertisols

            Keywords

            Crust formation, self-mulching, smectite, swelling clays, Vertisol

            Abstract

            Surface (0–20 cm) soils were sampled at 100 m intervals along a 3 km transect through Vertisols derived from dolerite and Ecca group mudstone near Standerton, Transvaal. The two geologically correlated soil bodies, which historically appear to have formed the basis for use of either crusting or self-mulching surface habits as local classification criteria, could be clearly distinguished and compared from two main segments of the transect. Comparison of physical properties suggested that the soil bodies could be separated by the following values of each property, air-water permeability ratio of 63; coefficient of linear extensibility: 10%; modulus of rupture: 70 kPa; liquid limit: 45%; and plastic limit: 24%. The self-mulching, dolerite-derived soils had values generally in excess of these limits, The high MOR values for the latter soils indicate that strong crusting potential and self-mulching behaviour are not mutually exclusive and therefore cannot be used as classification differentiae. It is suggested that an alternative basis for separating the two soil bodies may be sought in a revised definition of the vertic A horizon. S. Afr. J. Rant Soil 1985, 2: 18–20

            Authors

            Snyman, K., Fey, M. V. and Cass, A.

            Year Published

            1985

            Publication

            South African Journal of Plant and Soil

            Locations
            DOI

            10.1080/02571862.1985.10634131

            This article contributed by:

            Original

            Soil-water conservation as affected by primary tillage practicesBerry, W. A.J.1985

            Soil-water conservation as affected by primary tillage practices

            Keywords

            Soil-water conservation, stubble mulching, tillage

            Abstract

            An investigation of water conservation as affected by different primary tillage methods was conducted on a soil of the Doveton series (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic family of Rhodic Paleudults), where a direct sampling technique was used to monitor the soil-water profiles. Soil samples were taken for the period just prior to early winter tillage to two weeks before the maize crop flowered. The results showed that tillage practices which maintain higher levels of surface residues retained more water than practices which by their mode of soil disturbance leave soil surfaces relatively ‘clean’. Measured differences in soil physical properties and possibly also surface residue distribution resulting from tillage were used to explain why reduced tillage systems provided better water conservation. S. Afr. J. Plant Soil 1985, 2: 21–26

            Authors

            Berry, W. A.J., Mallett, J. B. and Johnston, M. A.

            Year Published

            1985

            Publication

            South African Journal of Plant and Soil

            Locations
              DOI

              10.1080/02571862.1985.10634132

              This article contributed by:

              Original

              Soil-water conservation as affected by primary tillage practicesBerry, W. A.J.1985

              Soil-water conservation as affected by primary tillage practices

              Keywords

              Soil-water conservation, stubble mulching, tillage

              Abstract

              An investigation of water conservation as affected by different primary tillage methods was conducted on a soil of the Doveton series (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic family of Rhodic Paleudults), where a direct sampling technique was used to monitor the soil-water profiles. Soil samples were taken for the period just prior to early winter tillage to two weeks before the maize crop flowered. The results showed that tillage practices which maintain higher levels of surface residues retained more water than practices which by their mode of soil disturbance leave soil surfaces relatively ‘clean’. Measured differences in soil physical properties and possibly also surface residue distribution resulting from tillage were used to explain why reduced tillage systems provided better water conservation. S. Mr. J. Plant Soil 1985, 2: 21–26

              Authors

              Berry, W. A.J., Mallett, J. B. and Johnston, M. A.

              Year Published

              1985

              Publication

              South African Journal of Plant and Soil

              Locations
              DOI

              10.1080/02571862.1985.10634133

              This article contributed by:

              Original

              Ultrastructural changes in the leaves of Zea mays L. plants treated with atrazineMalan, C.1985

              Ultrastructural changes in the leaves of Zea mays L. plants treated with atrazine

              Keywords

              Atrazine, ultrastructure, Zea mays L.

              Abstract

              Veinal chlorosis was induced in the lower leaves of young maize plants following treatment with atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6- isopropylamino-s-triazine). An ultrastructural investigation indicated that mesophyll chloroplasts, consisting of grana, thylakoids and stroma showed severe disintegration. The seemingly unaffected bundle sheath chloroplasts with stroma, thylakoids and sometimes a few rudimentary grana which normally only show PS I activity, appeared to transform to mesophyll-type chloroplasts with formation of small granai stacks. The mesophyll chloroplasts became more spherical and various ultrastructural changes became visible. The thylakoid system was destroyed, the granai compartments became swollen and the double-layered membrane broke down, leading to disintegration of the chloroplast. Atrazine had little effect on the bundle sheath chloroplasts except in a few cases where the chloroplast membrane exhibited swellings. At rates of 6 ppm atrazine, or prolonged treatment with 3 ppm atrazine, bundle sheath chloroplasts were devoid of starch granules. S. Air. J. Plant Soil 1985, 2: 27–30

              Authors

              Malan, C., Visser, J. H. and van de Venter, H. A.

              Year Published

              1985

              Publication

              South African Journal of Plant and Soil

              Locations
                DOI

                10.1080/02571862.1985.10634134

                This article contributed by:

                Original

                Importance of rainfall oscillations in agricultural planningdu Pisani, A. L.1985

                Importance of rainfall oscillations in agricultural planning

                Keywords

                Agricultural planning, dry cycles, maize, planting date, rainfall oscillations

                Abstract

                Evidence seems to indicate that the rainfall in the summer rainfall area of the RSA exhibits an oscillatory nature with a period of 16–20 years. To help maize farmers in planning for a dry or wet cycle the most recent dry (1963–1972) and wet (1973–1981) half-cycles were studied. Results showed that planting dates are not affected significantly. On soils with a high water-holding capacity, target yields should not differ by more than 10% at Potchefstroom, Bethlehem and Cedara. On soils with low moisture-holding capacity, however, the target yields could vary markedly between wet and dry half-cycles and in marginal rainfall areas (e.g. Glen) the risk of failure is high. It is imperative to take both climate and soil factors into consideration to ascertain the risk associated with dryland cropping. S. Afr. J. Plant Soil 1985, 2: 31–34

                Authors

                du Pisani, A. L.

                Year Published

                1985

                Publication

                South African Journal of Plant and Soil

                Locations
                DOI

                10.1080/02571862.1985.10634135

                This article contributed by:

                Original

                Recent Articles

                Perspectives on the Principles and Structure of the Soil Classification System in South Africa: Discussion and Practical Examples

                by Turner, David P

                The paper discusses revised principles, perspectives and structure for soil classification of natural soils in South Africa. An expanded ‘sphere of pedological interest’ is proposed through the formal recognition of a wider range of subsurface soil materials. The concept of soil groups has been recognised and is further developed as a formal classification category. In addition, a subgroup cate...

                published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil

                Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Physicochemical Properties of Pomegranate Grown in Different Microclimates in South Africa

                by Mditshwa, Asanda, Fawole, Olaniyi A, Al-Said, Fahad, Al-Yahyai, Rashid and Opara, Umezuruike L

                We investigated the antioxidant and physicochemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Bhagwa) fruit grown in three microclimates in South Africa. The physicochemical properties of fruit peel and arils differed among the growing locations, including weight and redness color of both peel and arils. Contents of vitamin C, anthocyanin and total phenolics were 0.67–1.41 mg ml−1, 0.07–0....

                published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil


                Estimation of Thrips (fulmekiola Serrata Kobus) Density in Sugarcane Using Leaf-Level Hyperspectral Data

                by Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M, Way, Mike, Ahmed, Fethi, Ismail, Riyad and Adam, Elhadi

                The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of leaf-level hyperspectral data to predict the density of sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata (Kobus). A hand-held spectroradiometer was used to make the spectral measurements on spindle leaves of 4- to 5-month-old plants of sugarcane cv. N19 growing in commercial fields near Umfolozi, South Africa. A random forest algorithm followed b...

                published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil

                A Revised Perspective on Principles of Soil Classification in South Africa

                by Turner, David P

                Limited significance has been given to the formal recognition of certain subsoil materials in the South African Soil Classification System. Three principles in the current classification system are discussed using variants of soil profiles associated with the Avalon soil form. The retention of the arbitrary depth criterion is questioned in favour of the recognition of an enlarged ‘sphere of ped...

                published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil