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Articles published from 1984-2014.

Description

Publishes original articles and commentaries on research in the fields of fundamental and applied soil and plant science. Original research papers, short communications including germplasm registrations, relevant book reviews, commentaries on papers recently published and, exceptionally, review articles will be considered for publication in the Journal. Manuscripts considered will address aspects of: Agronomical and Horticultural research including breeding and genetics, cultivar evaluation, management, nutrition, physiology, production, and quality; Soil Science research including biology, chemistry, classification, fertility, mineralogy, pedology and hydropedology, physics, and soil and land evaluation of agricultural and urban ecosystems; Weed Science research including biological control agents, biology, ecology, genetics, herbicide resistance and herbicide-resistant crops, and physiology and molecular action of herbicides and plant growth regulators; Agro-climatology; Agro-ecology; Forage, Pasture and Turfgrass science including production and utilisation; Plant and Soil Systems Modelling; Plant–Microbe Interactions; Plant–Pest Interactions; and Plant–Soil Relationships.

latest article added on October 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Effect of plant spacing on growth and yield of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in a soilless production systemMaboko, M.M.2009

Effect of plant spacing on growth and yield of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in a soilless production system

Keywords

fresh mass, gravel-film technique, leaf area, plant height, plant population

Abstract

Abstract Lettuce production in re-circulating hydroponic systems is done on a limited scale in South Africa with conflicting information on the recommended spacing for optimal yield and quality in such systems. The development and yield of four lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars ‘NIZ 44–675’, ‘Nou-gatine’, ‘Tango’ and ‘Natividad’ at five different inter- and intra-row spacings namely: 10x20 (50 plants m-2), 10x25 (40 plants m-2), 15×20 (30 plants m-2), 20×20 (25 plants m-2) and 20x25 (20 plants m-2) cm were evaluated during May/June 2008. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design and each treatment combination was replicated three times. There was a significant interaction between spacing and cultivar regarding leaf fresh and dry mass while all cultivars reacted similarly to different spacings on other yield parameters. Plant population significantly affected plant height, fresh and dry leaf mass, leaf area and leaf number m-2, with significantly higher values of all variables at the closest spacing (50 plants m-2). The results indicate that an increase in plant population results in a significant increase in yield and yield components of leafy lettuce, with all cultivars producing the highest yield at a spacing of 50 plants m- 2 during winter production. Cultivar differences observed showed that ‘NIZ 44–675’ and ‘Tango’ performed better than ‘Nougatine’ and ‘Natividad’, mostly due to higher leaf area, fresh mass, plant height and leaf number.

Authors

Maboko, M.M. and Steyn, J.M.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639954

This article contributed by:

Original

Distribution of magnesium forms in surface soils of Central Southern NigeriaOsemwota, I.O.2009

Distribution of magnesium forms in surface soils of Central Southern Nigeria

Keywords

Central Southern Nigeria, forms, Magnesium

Abstract

The distribution of various Mg forms in selected surface soils of the Edo State of Central Southern Nigeria was studied to contribute for a basic understanding of where and in what fractions Mg was located. Twenty surface (0 – 15cm) soil samples collected from pre-classified sites were investigated. The various Mg forms were determined by fractionation. Exchangeable [Mg(e)], organic complexed [Mg(o)], acid-soluble [Mg(a)], mineral [Mg(m)], and total [Mg(t)] ranged from 0.64 – 2.10, 0.12 – 0.63, 2.52 – 5.25, 2.94 – 5.04 and 7.35 – 12.60 cmol kg−1 with means of 1.36, 0.33, 3.69, 3.86 and 9.65 cmol kg-1, respectively. The Mg(o) averaged less than 3.42% of the Mg(t) in the soils. Mg(t) content of the soils appeared to be influenced by parent materials. The amounts of the various chemical forms of Mg could be ranked in terms of abundance in soils in the following order: Mg(m) > Mg(a) > Mg(e) > Mg(o). Mg(a) was positively and significantly correlated with Mg(m) and Mg(t) (P ≤ 0.05) while Mg(m) was positively and significantly correlated with Mg(t) (P ≤ 0.001). The soils were adequate in Mg(e) based on established critical levels for Nigerian soils.

Authors

Osemwota, I.O., Omueti, J.A.I. and Ogboghodo, A.I.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639935

This article contributed by:

Original

The effects of a water treatment residue on grain yield and nutrient content in seeds of common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Ghadra) grown in a dystrophic soilTitshall, L.W.2009

The effects of a water treatment residue on grain yield and nutrient content in seeds of common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Ghadra) grown in a dystrophic soil

Keywords

dry beans, land application, manganese toxicity, nutrient translocation, water treatment residue

Abstract

This glasshouse study investigated the grain yield and nutrient content of seed of common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Ghadra) grown in a dystrophic sandy soil treated with 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g kg−1 water treatment residue (WTR) and five levels of fertiliser. Dry mass and nutrient content of the bean seed were determined. Seed mass data was compared by analysis of variance and no significant (P = 0.404) were found for the interactive effect of WTR application rate and fertiliser. However, each individual treatment was found to have a significant effect (P < 0.001). Increasing application of fertiliser significantly increased the seed mass produced for each increment of fertiliser applied. The mass of seed for the WTR treated soils were significantly greater than the control soil, with the highest yield over the average of the fertiliser treatments measured for the 100 g kg−1 WTR application rate. Macro-nutrient concentrations of the bean seed were generally within typical ranges reported for bean seed for human consumption. Concentrations of Mn and Zn tended to be over the typical ranges, though this was observed in the control treatments as well as the WTR treated soils. It was evident that increasing application rates of WTR increased the concentrations of Mn in the seed. To avoid potential risks for human consumption an application rate of WTR not exceeding 100 g kg−1 (about 260 kg ha−1) was recommended.

Authors

Titshall, L.W. and Hughes, J.C.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639936

This article contributed by:

Original

Effect of timing and concentration of rest breaking agents on budburst in ‘Bing’ sweet cherry under conditions of inadequate winter chilling in South AfricaCook, N.C.2009

Effect of timing and concentration of rest breaking agents on budburst in ‘Bing’ sweet cherry under conditions of inadequate winter chilling in South Africa

Keywords

Chilling Portions, hydrogen cyanamide, Positive Utah Chill units, Prunus avium, thidiazuron

Abstract

The effect of timing of various rest breaking agents (RBAs) on vegetative and floral budburst, and production efficiency was investigated on 4-year-old ‘Bing’ sweet cherry trees on ‘Gisela® 5’ rootstock. Two experiments were conducted, near Clarens (28°28’S; 28°19’E, 1860 m.a.s.l) and Reitz (28°0’S; 28°28’E; 1717 m.a.s.l) in the eastern Free State, during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The 2005 experiment evaluated five treatments; 1% and 2% Dormex® (49% hydrogen cyanamide, HCN); 1% Dormex® + 3% Budbreak® oil (869.3 g L−1 mineral oil); and 3% Lift® (thidiazuron and mineral oil) sprayed on whole trees on three dates preceding expected “green-tip”, and an unsprayed control. In 2006 four treatments were evaluated; 1% Dormex®; 1% Dormex® + 3% Bud-break® oil (869.3 g L−1 mineral oil); 3% Lift® applied on three dates, and an unsprayed control. Compared to the control, RBAs were most effective at improving vegetative budburst during both seasons while results of floral budburst and production efficiency varied between seasons indicating that time of RBA application should be based on chilling accumulation and bud development stage and not only calendar date. The time of application of RBAs had the most significant influence on budburst and production efficiency. No interaction was observed between time and treatment.

Authors

Cook, N.C., Sheard, A.G. and Johnson, S.D.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639937

This article contributed by:

Original

Physiological traits associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under tropical conditionsKimurto, P.K.2009

Physiological traits associated with drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under tropical conditions

Keywords

Carbon dioxide exchange rates, genotype, rain shelter, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency

Abstract

Although it is generally accepted that drought tolerance is a critical agronomic trait, efficient and predictable improvement in drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in varying drought stress conditions, has not been fully achieved. This study aimed at assessing the responses of bread wheat to drought, using physiological traits associated with drought tolerance. Two experiments were undertaken in 2001 and 2002. In Experiment I, 17 wheat genotypes were planted in the field in Katumani, Kenya, using a randomised complete block design. Experiment II was conducted under rain shelter (by simulating early season drought at seedling stage) at National Plant Breeding Research Centre, Njoro, Kenya. Treatments were imposed in a split-plot design with water regime (low, medium and high) as main plots and 12 wheat genotypes as sub-plots. Evapo-transpiration (ET) was determined by monitoring soil moisture content at 7 d intervals using a neutron probe, stomatal conductance (g) and instantaneous transpiration (T) rates were measured on the uppermost fully expanded leaves at booting stage using a steady-state porometer, net leaf CO2 exchange rates (CER) was measured on selected leaves using a portable Infrared Gas Analyser, fitted with Parkinson Leaf chamber, and crop biomass, grain yield and harvest index (HI) determined at harvest maturity. Water use efficiency (q), HI, stomatal conductance, and CER were identified as key control points in determining the drought resistance of tolerant genotypes. Therefore it is important to determine the heritability of these traits in order to ascertain their potential usefulness in a wheat breeding program.

Authors

Kimurto, P.K., Ogola, J.B.O., Kinyua, M.G., Macharia, J.M. and Njau, P.N.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639938

This article contributed by:

Original

‘Water and fertilizer influence on yield of grain sorghum varieties produced in Burkina FasoPalé, S.2009

‘Water and fertilizer influence on yield of grain sorghum varieties produced in Burkina Faso

Keywords

microdose, reversible tool IR12, tied-ridges, traditional beer, zaï

Abstract

Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the major cereal crop used in the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso to produce the traditional beer called “dolo”. Experiments combining five water management techniques (WMT) and four fertilizer treatments (FT) in a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement of treatments were conducted from 2003 to 2005. Water management techniques were allocated to main plots and FT to subplots. The objective was to determine the best cropping practice to optimize yields for two red grain sorghum varieties, IRAT9 and ICSV1001 (Framida), commonly used for dolo production. Results indicated that water conservation using tied-ridges produced higher grain yields. The highest yield benefit was 241 kg ha−1 for Framida. In the IRAT9 field, the highest yield benefit of 395 kg ha−1occurred in the lowest rainfall year (736 mm) of 2005. In all years, microdose consisting of application of 19 kg N ha−1, 19 kg P ha−1 and 19 kg K ha−1 as complex fertilizer NPK at planting, with addition of 20 kg P ha−1 as triple super phosphate at planting in the planting hole and 30 kg N ha−1 as urea applied 45 days after planting (microdose + 20 kg P ha−1 + 30 kg N ha−1) produced the highest grain yield increases from 420 to 756 kg ha−1 for Framida and from 812 to 1346 kg ha−1 for IRAT9. In the IRAT9 field, microdose + 20 kg P ha−1 + 30 kg N ha−1 produced the highest grain yield in all WM treatments, with yield increases from 518 to 1327 kg ha−1 depending on the WMT. Correlations indicated that the number of panicles harvested ha−1 were associated with grain yield for the two varieties. The best cropping system to optimize grain yield of Framida and IRAT9 was the use of tied-ridges and application of micro-dose + 20 kg P ha−1 + 30 kg N ha−1.

Authors

Palé, S., Mason, S.C. and Taonda, S.J.B.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639939

This article contributed by:

Original

Citrus tristeza virus cross-protection of ‘Palmer’ navel orange in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africavan Vuuren, S.P.2009

Citrus tristeza virus cross-protection of ‘Palmer’ navel orange in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Keywords

citrus rootstocks, decline, Mexican lime, pre-immunising, stem pitting

Abstract

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is endemic in southern Africa due to the abundance of the citrus brown aphid, To x -optera citricida Kirk., the main insect vector. Virus-free propagation material in the Southern African Citrus Improvement Scheme is pre-inoculated with mild CTV sources (natural mixtures of strains) to protect the trees from the introduction of severe strains of CTV by aphids. This method of CTV management is known as cross-protection. Success is mainly dependant on the mild CTV source used for pre-immunisation, the scion and root-stock cultivars to be protected, and the environment. In this study different CTV sources (LMS 6, SM 36, SM 41, SM 45, SOSS 2) were evaluated in ‘Palmer’ navel orange on various rootstocks (rough lemon, ‘Troyer’ cit-range, ‘Swingle’ citrumelo, ‘C35’ citrange) that are commercially used in the Eastern Cape region of South Africa, the objective being to identify a suitable CTV source for commercial use. Trees that were pre-immunised with CTV source LMS 6 grew significantly better over a 7-year period than trees with CTV sources SM 36, SM 41, the severe source SOSS 2 and those that were planted virus-free. These trees also yielded the best over a 3-year period and had a 47% higher cumulative yield than trees that were planted virus-free, and 38% higher than the average of all the other treatments. Growth and production of trees that were planted virus-free gave an indication of the effect of challenging CTV strains that were introduced by aphids.

Authors

van Vuuren, S.P., Maritz, J.G.J. and Combrink, N.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639940

This article contributed by:

Original

Soil properties changes after short-term livestock exclusion in “degraded” communally managed rangelands in the western Bophirima District, South AfricaMoussa, A.S.2009

Soil properties changes after short-term livestock exclusion in “degraded” communally managed rangelands in the western Bophirima District, South Africa

Keywords

bophirima district, chemical properties, communal grazing management, enzyme activity, exclo-sure, microbial biomass

Abstract

Livestock grazing and detrimental overgrazing are commonly associated with severe rangeland degradation particularly in communally managed pastoral systems in South Africa. Effects of grazing exclusion on vegetation are well documented, but there is a dearth of quantitative research conducted in communal managed range-lands to investigate the extent of associated soil properties changes. This study compared soil characteristics between grazed and 6 years adjacent exclosure plots at three communally managed sites namely Austrey, Southey/Eska and Tseoge in the western Bophirima District. A slow rate of change in soil properties between the grazed and exclosure plots was observed and differences were site-specific where detected. Phosphorus was significantly different at Tseoge (p = 0.001) and nitrate at Southey/Eska site (p<0.0001). Soil organic carbon was not affected by grazing exclusion at all sites, but the activity of ß-glucosidase activity was significantly different between exclosure and grazed plots. The activity of dehydrogenase was significantly different at Southey/ Eska site only (p = 0.002), whereas soil microbial biomass showed significant difference only at Tseoge site (p = 0.03). These results suggest that short-term livestock removal does not lead to a significant improvement of soil condition, as reflected by changes in soil properties. Caution is recommended when interpreting these results beyond the constraints imposed by the design of the study and the lack of information about livestock management practices and regimes at the sites.

Authors

Moussa, A.S., Van Rensburg, L. and Kellner, K.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639941

This article contributed by:

Original

Effect of microencapsulated alachlor on South African sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivarsCeronio, G.M.2009

Effect of microencapsulated alachlor on South African sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars

Keywords

Herbicide, sensitivity, soil type, survival, tolerance

Abstract

The microencapsulated formulation of alachlor is becoming increasingly popular for use on sunflower in South Africa, where it is registered for use at a rate of 1.54 to 1.92 kg ai ha−1. Some injury symptoms, apparently herbicide induced, have been observed on sunflower where this herbicide has been applied in the field. The response of 22 commercially available sunflower cultivars was tested in a glasshouse experiment using both a sand (10% clay, 0.24% C) and a sandy loam soil (20% clay, 0.52% C). Five rates of alachlor (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 times the recommended application rate for each of these soils) were applied and leached into the soil after planting. At harvest plant height, above-ground biomass and seedling survival rate were determined. Results indicated that cultivars differed with respect to alachlor tolerance, but that behaviour was modified by soil type. All effects were far more pronounced on the sandy soil, despite a lower recommended application rate. Plant height was affected by increasing application rate to a far greater degree than dry mass. Although the application rate for this herbicide was lower on the sandy soil, plant growth was significantly reduced at the recommended rate of application for this soil (1.536 kg ai ha−1). Seedling survival rates were reduced at the recommended application rate on both soils, although the effect was far more pronounced on the sand soil. The results indicated that despite the lower recommended application rate of microencapsulated alachlor on sandy soils a far greater degree of herbicide damage to sunflower can be expected on these soils due to increased availability to crop roots. These findings in part explain some of the problems found on sunflower where this formulation of alachlor has been applied.

Authors

Ceronio, G.M. and Allemann, J.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639942

This article contributed by:

Original

Comparison of SSR and AFLP analysis for genetic diversity assessment of Ethiopian arabica coffee genotypesDessalegn, Yigzaw2009

Comparison of SSR and AFLP analysis for genetic diversity assessment of Ethiopian arabica coffee genotypes

Keywords

Coffea arabica L, DNA fingerprinting, genotyping, polymorphic information content

Abstract

Knowledge of genetic diversity within and among genotypes of any crop is fundamental for estimation of the potential genetic gain in a breeding programme and effective conservation of available genetic resources. Currently, different molecular marker techniques are being developed for measuring genetic diversity. Comparison among molecular marker techniques is important for effective marker selection. However such types of efforts are rare for arabica coffee. This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis for determining genetic relationships of 28 Coffea arabica L. genotypes collected from different parts of Ethiopia with work previously done using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. A total of 22 SSR fragments were amplified and compared with 712 previously amplified AFLP fragments. AFLP and SSR markers were positively and significantly correlated (0.217) in estimating genetic similarity among genotypes. The average genetic similarity coefficient calculated using SSR markers was much lower (0.560 with a range of 0.286–1.000) compared to AFLP markers (0.915 with a range of 0.860–0.982) indicating the higher information content of SSR markers. AFLP markers distinguished all genotypes, while SSR markers distinguished 64.3% of the genotypes. Results indicated that AFLP markers were more efficient compared to SSR markers for characterization of the evaluated coffee genotypes.

Authors

Dessalegn, Yigzaw, Herselman, Liezel and Labuschagne, Maryke

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639943

This article contributed by:

Original

Recent Articles

Perspectives on the Principles and Structure of the Soil Classification System in South Africa: Discussion and Practical Examples

by Turner, David P

The paper discusses revised principles, perspectives and structure for soil classification of natural soils in South Africa. An expanded ‘sphere of pedological interest’ is proposed through the formal recognition of a wider range of subsurface soil materials. The concept of soil groups has been recognised and is further developed as a formal classification category. In addition, a subgroup cate...

published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Physicochemical Properties of Pomegranate Grown in Different Microclimates in South Africa

by Mditshwa, Asanda, Fawole, Olaniyi A, Al-Said, Fahad, Al-Yahyai, Rashid and Opara, Umezuruike L

We investigated the antioxidant and physicochemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Bhagwa) fruit grown in three microclimates in South Africa. The physicochemical properties of fruit peel and arils differed among the growing locations, including weight and redness color of both peel and arils. Contents of vitamin C, anthocyanin and total phenolics were 0.67–1.41 mg ml−1, 0.07–0....

published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil


Estimation of Thrips (fulmekiola Serrata Kobus) Density in Sugarcane Using Leaf-Level Hyperspectral Data

by Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M, Way, Mike, Ahmed, Fethi, Ismail, Riyad and Adam, Elhadi

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of leaf-level hyperspectral data to predict the density of sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata (Kobus). A hand-held spectroradiometer was used to make the spectral measurements on spindle leaves of 4- to 5-month-old plants of sugarcane cv. N19 growing in commercial fields near Umfolozi, South Africa. A random forest algorithm followed b...

published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil

A Revised Perspective on Principles of Soil Classification in South Africa

by Turner, David P

Limited significance has been given to the formal recognition of certain subsoil materials in the South African Soil Classification System. Three principles in the current classification system are discussed using variants of soil profiles associated with the Avalon soil form. The retention of the arbitrary depth criterion is questioned in favour of the recognition of an enlarged ‘sphere of ped...

published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil