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Articles published from 1984-2014.

Description

Publishes original articles and commentaries on research in the fields of fundamental and applied soil and plant science. Original research papers, short communications including germplasm registrations, relevant book reviews, commentaries on papers recently published and, exceptionally, review articles will be considered for publication in the Journal. Manuscripts considered will address aspects of: Agronomical and Horticultural research including breeding and genetics, cultivar evaluation, management, nutrition, physiology, production, and quality; Soil Science research including biology, chemistry, classification, fertility, mineralogy, pedology and hydropedology, physics, and soil and land evaluation of agricultural and urban ecosystems; Weed Science research including biological control agents, biology, ecology, genetics, herbicide resistance and herbicide-resistant crops, and physiology and molecular action of herbicides and plant growth regulators; Agro-climatology; Agro-ecology; Forage, Pasture and Turfgrass science including production and utilisation; Plant and Soil Systems Modelling; Plant–Microbe Interactions; Plant–Pest Interactions; and Plant–Soil Relationships.

latest article added on October 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Phosphorus application rate, and time after application, affect soil and leaf phosphorus concentrations in an upland Western Cape apple orchardWooldridge, J.2009

Phosphorus application rate, and time after application, affect soil and leaf phosphorus concentrations in an upland Western Cape apple orchard

Keywords

Bray II, orchard nutrition, immobilisation, potassium, Starking

Abstract

The effects of different rates of phosphorus (P) applied during soil preparation on leaf and soil P concentrations, and on leaf K, were investigated in a field trial in which Starking apple trees were grown on a limed, initially low-P (<1.5 mg kg−1) Pinedene soil on Bokkeveld shale in the Vyeboom area, South Africa. Single superphosphate (10.5% P) was applied at rates of 0, 590, 1210 and 2370 kg ha−1 during soil preparation. These promoted Bray II soil P concentrations of 1.4, 7.5, 10.3 and 29.6 mg kg−1, respectively, in season one. Soil P concentrations decreased with time thereafter, supporting adequate leaf P concentrations for time intervals that increased with initial P application rate, but which, even at the maximum P application rate, did not exceed six seasons. Leaf K bore no significant relationship to soil or leaf P concentrations.

Authors

Wooldridge, J.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639944

This article contributed by:

Original

SCAR markers that specifically tag chromosomes 2D of wheat and 2J1 d of Thinopyrum distichumMarais, G.F.2009

SCAR markers that specifically tag chromosomes 2D of wheat and 2J1 d of Thinopyrum distichum

Keywords

Marker aided selection, salt tolerance, substituted triticale

Abstract

A SCAR marker for Thinopyrum distichum chromosome 2J1 d (involved in salt tolerance) also amplified a slightly larger fragment in chromosome 2D of common wheat and substituted hexaploid triticale. The Thinopyrum and wheat derived fragments were isolated and used to develop two new and highly specific markers for 2J1 dL and 2DL, respectively. The chromosome 2J1 dL marker is useful in attempts to introgress salt tolerance into cultivated wheat and triticale whereas the 2DL marker can be used for rapid identification of hexaploid triticales with the 2D(2R) chromosome substitution.

Authors

Marais, G.F., Groenewald, C.W. and Marais, AS

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639945

This article contributed by:

Original

Root dynamics of Themeda triandra Forsk. in relation to water stress and defoliation at different phenological stagesOosthuizen, I.B.2009

Root dynamics of Themeda triandra Forsk. in relation to water stress and defoliation at different phenological stages

Keywords

Defoliation, growth stage, plant-available water, root length, root mass

Abstract

The impact of water stress on root growth for the indigenous apomectic C4-grass species Themeda triandra was determined over a growing season covering three growth stages (vegetative, pipe and reproductive), as well as for regrowth occurring to one, three and six days after defoliation. Four water treatments (T1 = 0–25%, T2 = 25–50%, T3 = 50–75% and T4 = 75–100% depletion of plant-available water) were applied to plants grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. Root length and root mass increased significantly, with a decrease in plant-available water over all the growth stages. Root lengths and root masses were significantly higher during the reproductive growth stage for all the water treatments. In addition, root lengths for the different defoliation treatments, within the same water treatment, did not differ significantly. The influence of water stress has more effect over the short term on root growth than defoliation or growth stage. These measures will be useful to resource managers and should be considered when predicting ecosystem responses to global climate change.

Authors

Oosthuizen, I.B. and Snyman, H.A.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639925

This article contributed by:

Original

Effects of sugar cane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) cropping on soil acidity and exchangeable base status in MauritiusCheong, L. R. Ng2009

Effects of sugar cane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) cropping on soil acidity and exchangeable base status in Mauritius

Keywords

Calcium, fertilization, liming, magnesium, pH, potassium

Abstract

Continuous sugar cane cropping commonly leads to soil acidification. Such an effect can be attributed to N fertilization and to leaching and removal of exchangeable bases. A study was conducted on the five zonal soils of Mauritius to ascertain whether continuous sugar cane cropping was causing the soil pH and level of exchangeable bases to decline to such an extent that it would threaten the sustainability of the island’s sugar industry. Soil pH, K, Ca and Mg concentration were determined for samples that had either been under native vegetation or cropped with sugar cane. Cropping was beneficial to pH in the sub-humid Low Humic Latosol (L) and Latosolic Reddish Prairie (P) and humid Humic Latosol (H) soils, but detrimental in the super-humid Humic Ferruginous Latosol (F) soil. The increased pH in the first three soils was caused by the regular application of pH-enhancing amendments such as lime, coral sand, filter mud and poultry litter. In the F soil, the acidification of the topsoil was accompanied by a pH increase in the subsoil, indicating that bases had been leached down the profile by rainfall. Cropping was not detrimental to exchangeable base status, indicating that current applications of K, Ca and Mg-containing compounds to the sugar cane crop were also generally adequate to compensate for the removal and losses of these elements. Since sugar cane cropping does not lower soil pH or reduce levels of exchangeable bases, it can be concluded that current recommendations with respect to liming and exchangeable base application are adequate for the long-term sustainability of the sugar industry and should be adhered to.

Authors

Cheong, L. R. Ng, Kwong, K. F. Ng Kee and Preez, C. C. Du

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639926

This article contributed by:

Original

Effects of liming on microbial activity and N mineralization in broiler manure-amended soils from Bizana, Eastern Cape, South AfricaAverbeke, W. van2009

Effects of liming on microbial activity and N mineralization in broiler manure-amended soils from Bizana, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Keywords

Biological activity, chicken manure, lime, nitrogen mineralization, soil acidity

Abstract

A laboratory incubation study was conducted to determine the effects of liming on microbial activity and N mineralization in two Bizana soils amended with broiler manure. The experimental layout was a 4 x 3 complete factorial experiment with three replicates, arranged in a randomized design. Soil pH, CO2 evolution, and mineral N concentration were measured. After 56 days the soil pH ranged from 4.50 to 5.74 and 4.99 to 5.94, in the Magusheni and Nikwe soils, respectively. The effect of liming on microbial activity and N mineralization differed between the soils. In the Nikwe soil (acid saturation 4.0%), microbial activity and N mineralization increased as the rate of broiler manure application was raised, but liming had no effect. In the Magusheni soil (acid saturation 25%), microbial activity increased as both lime and chicken manure application rates increased, but liming reduced N mineralization, suggesting N immobilization was being driven by an active microbial population in the limed soils. The rates of lime and/or chicken manure application, percentage Ca2 + and soil acid saturation were important factors influencing microbial activity and N mineralization, but the effect of soil pH on N mineralization was not evident in either of the soils.

Authors

Averbeke, W. van, Jezile, G.G., Westfall, D.G., Peterson, G., Child, D.R. and Turner, D.P.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639927

This article contributed by:

Original

Frodo and Darius: South African potato cultivars with good processing qualityAnnandale, J.G.2009

Frodo and Darius: South African potato cultivars with good processing quality

Keywords

Fry colour, reducing sugar, specific gravity, tuber characteristics

Abstract

Two newly released South African potato cultivars, Frodo and Darius, were compared with two foreign processing cultivars, Pentland Dell and Shepody. The cultivars were grown under sprinkler irrigation and evaluated for external and internal tuber characteristics and processing quality. The experiment was conducted at Bronkhorst-spruit, South Africa. Results indicated that Frodo had significantly higher tuber form index values (long tuber shape) for all tuber sizes, a desired characteristic for french fry processing. Pentland Dell and Shepody exhibited more vascular discolouration, while Frodo had the highest occurrence of tuber brown spot. These physiological disorders probably resulted from unfavourably high temperatures and water stress during the late growing season. Shepody had the lowest specific gravity, followed by Pentland Dell. Reducing sugar levels for both the foreign cultivars were also relatively high and only marginally within the ranges required for french fry processing. Frodo and Darius, on the other hand, had high specific gravities and low reducing sugar levels, which are desirable characteristics for long-term storability and the production of quality frozen fries. Tuber yields of these two cultivars were also similar or higher than those of the foreign cultivars. Frodo and Darius can, therefore, successfully compete with Shepody and Pentland Dell as processing cultivars under local conditions.

Authors

Annandale, J.G., Steyn, J.M., Geremew, E.B. and Steyn, P.J.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639928

This article contributed by:

Original

Application of Partial Least Squares regression to relate tastiness of boiled potatoes to chemical and physical testsSmith, Marie F.2009

Application of Partial Least Squares regression to relate tastiness of boiled potatoes to chemical and physical tests

Keywords

Multivariate regression, partial least squares regression, principal component analysis, sensory analysis

Abstract

Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) was used to understand the relationship between 15 sensory attributes of potatoes boiled in their skins as dependent variables (Y), and six objective (chemical and physical) measurements as the independent variables (X). The ARC-Sensory Analysis Unit, at Irene, South Africa, conducted the study. A trained sensory panel (n=10) was used to determine the texture, aroma and flavour attributes of five potato cultivars; Mondial, BP1, Up-to-Date, Van der Plank and Caren. Four repetitions of each sample were used. The PLS regression formed three distinct groups of the cultivars: (1) Mondial, (2) BP1 and Van der Plank, which contrasted with (3) Caren and Up-to-Date. These groupings were confirmed by the culinary uses of the cultivars and their ability to retain shape after boiling. Mondial is favoured for making potato salad or boiling as it retains its shape during cooking. BP1 and Van der Plank are suitable for most uses of boiled potatoes as they retain their shape, whereas Caren and Up-to-Date do not retain their shape during cooking and are suitable for baking and frying.

Authors

Smith, Marie F., Leighton, Christine S., Morey, Liesl and Schönfeldt, Hettie C.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639929

This article contributed by:

Original

Effect of tillage system and nitrogen fertilization on efficacy of applied nitrogen by maize in Western Ethiopiadu Preez, C.C.2009

Effect of tillage system and nitrogen fertilization on efficacy of applied nitrogen by maize in Western Ethiopia

Keywords

Agronomic efficiency, conventional tillage, physiological efficiency, recovery efficiency, minimum tillage

Abstract

Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for maize production under conventional and minimum tillage systems in western Ethiopia. Thus application of N is essential to sustain production in the region. However, very little is known about the efficiency of the fertilizer N applied. Experiments were therefore conducted to determine the integrated effects of tillage systems and N fertilization on the usage of applied N by maize from 2000 to 2004 at five sites. Three tillage systems (MTRR = minimum tillage with residue retention, MTRV = minimum tillage with residue removal and CT = conventional tillage) and three N levels (the recommended rate, 25% less and more than this rate) were combined in factorial arrangement with three replications. A significantly higher grain N content was recorded with MTRR than with MTRV and CT. The stover N content was not significantly affected by the three tillage systems. However, grain, stover and total biomass N uptake were consistently superior with MTRR compared to MTRV and CT. The agronomic (NAE), recovery (NRE) and physiological (NPE) efficient use of applied N by maize for the same tillage system were consistently higher at the lower N level range of 69 − 92 kg ha−1 than at the higher N level range of 92 − 115 kg ha−1. At the lower N level range NAE and NRE were larger with CT than with the other two tillage systems. Both indices were higher with MTRR than with the other two tillage systems at the higher N level range. The NPE was not significantly affected by the tillage systems. However, the trend at both N level ranges was higher with MTRR than with MTRV and CT.

Authors

du Preez, C.C., Ceronio, G.M. and Tolessa, D.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2009.10639930

This article contributed by:

Original

The effect of grain mould fungi on sorghum malt quality and its management during maltingTesfaendrias, M.T.2009

The effect of grain mould fungi on sorghum malt quality and its management during malting

Keywords

Sorghum bicolor, grain mould, malting quality, NaOCl

Abstract

The effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at various concentrations during steeping in reducing the growth of grain mould fungi and the improvement of malt quality was tested. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences in grain mould fungal frequency, percentage germination and root length were observed between different concentrations of NaOCl. Fungal frequency was reduced by up to 98% at 1.75 and 3.5% NaOCl. However, germination and root length of grains were negatively affected at NaOCl concentrations above 0.43%. High germination (>80%) was recorded at concentrations ≤ 0.43% NaOCl while this was reduced to <70% at higher concentrations. Similarly, the longest root length (32.25 mm) was recorded in seedlings treated with 0.43% NaOCl with a decline in root elongation, particularly at the higher (1.75 and 3.50%) concentrations tested. It was concluded that treating of sorghum grains with appropriate concentrations of NaOCl may reduce the contamination of grains by mould fungi, improve germination vigour and hence, the quality of malt.

Authors

Tesfaendrias, M.T., McLaren, N.W. and Swart, W.J.

Year Published

2009

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
    DOI

    10.1080/02571862.2009.10639931

    This article contributed by:

    Original

    Evaluation of greenhouse inoculation techniques used to screen for Sclerotinia stem rot resistance in soybeansMcLaren, N.W.2009

    Evaluation of greenhouse inoculation techniques used to screen for Sclerotinia stem rot resistance in soybeans

    Keywords

    Inoculation methods, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, screening

    Abstract

    Numerous inoculation methods have been used to screen soybean germplasm for resistance to Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study was conducted to compare six inoculation methods viz. (i) spray mycelium, (ii) drop mycelium, (iii) cut stem, (iv) cotyledon inoculation, (v) straw inoculation and (vi) petiole. Four soybean cultivars were planted in 1–l pots in the greenhouse and grown to V3 (third trifoliate) growth stage. Overseeded pots were thinned to four plants which were inoculated using the respective methods and covered for nine days with transparent plastic bags. Plants were arranged in a randomized block design with eight replicates. The number of infected plants was counted and leaf lesion development and degree of plant wilting were scored using a 0 to 5 rating scale. The spray mycelium method yielded the highest incidence of wilting although a significant cultivar × inoculation technique (P<0.05) was recorded, particularly where host tissues were damaged prior to inoculation. Results suggest that cultivar responses are affected by the degree and area of tissue damage associated with the respective inoculation methods.

    Authors

    McLaren, N.W., Swart, W.J. and Botha, C.

    Year Published

    2009

    Publication

    South African Journal of Plant and Soil

    Locations
      DOI

      10.1080/02571862.2009.10639932

      This article contributed by:

      Original

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